Applications of Industrial Symbiosis
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Industrial Symbiosis (IS), a study area within Industrial Ecology (IE), focuses on the knowledge web establishment of novel exchanges for synergies among companies to develop industrial ecosystems. Three types of IS applications have been explored in the literature: regional community -based IS, national IS programmes and eco-industrial parks (EIPs) . These IS applications have offered valuable lessons. Critical success factors drawn from these practices are: an IS coordinating centre , economic and environmental gains in the vision, a large database of knowledge webs for potential symbiotic exchanges, early involvement of participating companies, and government investment at the start. IS applications need not be restricted by geographic proximity. Industrial clusters also need to be transformed into eco-industrial clusters. The transformation requires planned and facilitated IS and long-term vision.
KeywordsIndustrial symbiosis applications Kalundborg industrial symbiosis (IS) The UK national IS programme (NISP) Eco-Industrial parks (EIPs) Geographic proximity Eco-Industrial clusters (EICs)
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