Industrial Ecology Applications in the Four Areas

  • Xiaohong LiEmail author


Industrial Ecology (IE) can be applied in four interrelated study areas: industrial ecosystem, Industrial Symbiosis (IS), industrial metabolism (IM) and legislation and regulations for IE applications . Different methods can be used to determine the boundary of an industrial ecosystem: material-based, product-based and geographic-based. IS applications have shifted from a self-organising to planned or facilitated practice. IM establishes its position within IE in quantifying the efficiency and rates of material, waste and energy exchanges over the total corresponding flow to evaluate the closed-loop status of an industrial ecosystem. Legislation and regulations on waste need to reflect the IE’s view of waste as resources. The integration of these four areas is critical to the success of IE applications to fulfil its potential to improve environmental sustainability.


Applications of Industrial Ecology Industrial ecosystem boundaries Self-organised versus planned or facilitated Industrial Symbiosis Efficiency and rates of resource flows in industrial metabolism Legislation and regulations for Industrial Ecology applications 


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© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SheffieldUK

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