Military, Sports, and Culture
In addition to being underrepresented, Blacks in the United States Armed Forces (Navy, Army Marine Corps, and Air Force) endured racism and abuse. During the 1950s and 1960s, there were groups that sought to encourage desegregation. Reports and conferences were presented which championed integration. During the 1950s and 1960s, there were diverse voices in song, poetry, literature, and drama. These persons championed against segregation and the injustices facing Afro-Americans. Artistes as James Brown, Curtis Mayfield, and Percy Sledge captured the era in their songs. And, novelists as James Baldwin also incorporated the unfolding history in their works. Likewise, in the Caribbean, there were novelists and calypsonians who addressed the socioeconomic problems confronting citizens.