The central thesis is that personnel within schools, universities and businesses discriminated against Black America. There is an assessment of the disastrous impact of the rule of prime ministers in the Caribbean, who refused to acknowledge the importance of Black Power. Most of these rulers in the Caribbean islands refused to listen to the grievances of trade unions. Also there will be an examination of the US unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) especially their reaction to discrimination against Black employees. During the 1950s and 1960s, the AFL-CIO held regular constitutional conventions on the issue of segregation and discrimination of Blacks.