What Is a Procedure?

  • Eric C. R. HehnerEmail author


Whether the meaning of a procedure is given by its specification or by its implementation has consequences for scalability of analysis, for localization of errors, for loop semantics, for program translation, and even for the halting problem.


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  1. 1.
    Hehner, E.C.R.: A Practical Theory of Programming, 1st edn. Springer (1993); current edition online at, 2016
  2. 2.
    Hehner, E.C.R.: Formal Methods of Software Design, course online at (2015)
  3. 3.
    Hehner, E.C.R.: Several Papers on the Halting Problem, online at (2013–2015)

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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