Retinal Prostheses: Other Therapies and Future Directions
Inherited and age-related retinal dystrophies, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), respectively, are a leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Various approaches aiming at restoring visual function in the blind are currently under development and evaluation: neuroprotection, gene and cell therapy, and retinal prostheses. In this review, we focus on recent advances in optogenetics and cell therapy, two therapeutic strategies that have the potential to restore vision in a broad spectrum of retinal degenerative diseases. We discuss major advantages of optogenetics and cell therapies as well as their current limitations.