The Path to a Systemic Understanding of the Biosphere

  • Victor I. Danilov-Danil’yan
  • Igor E. Reyf


Vernadsky and his concept of the biosphere—From biocenose to ecosystem: the establishment of ecology as a science—The 1920s: the arrival of mathematical methods in ecology—The hydrobiologists’ contribution—The ecosystem: birth of a term—Biogeocenose as cell of the biosphere – Nikolay Timofeyev-Resovsky: the biosphere as a factory, manufacturing the environment – James Lovelock and the “Gaia Hypothesis”—Strong and weak points of the Gaia Hypothesis and criticism from evolutionary biologists.


History of ecology Alexander Humboldt Vladimir Vernadsky Biosphere Ernst Von Haeckel Karl Mobius Biocenose Henry Cowles Frederic Clements Biological succession Charles Elton Ecological niche Ecological pyramid Alfred Lotka Arthur Tansley Ecosystem Vladimir Sukachyov Biogeocenose Raymond Lindeman Trophic level Energy transfer Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy Nikolay Timofeyev-Resovsky Lames Lovelock Gaia Hypothesis Viktor Gorshkov 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor I. Danilov-Danil’yan
    • 1
  • Igor E. Reyf
    • 2
  1. 1.Correspondent Member of Russian Academy of SciencesDirector of the Water Problems Institute of RASMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Freelance Journalist/WriterFrankfurt am MainGermany

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