From Sustainable Cities to Sustainable People—Changing Behavior Towards Sustainability with the Five A Planning Approach

Chapter
Part of the World Sustainability Series book series (WSUSE)

Abstract

The discussion about sustainable cities mainly focuses on technical solutions such as public transportation systems, resource-efficient buildings, and renewable energy generation. However, most cities don’t take into consideration that the main factors that make a city sustainable are the people who live in the city. Sustainability is not just about using new technologies that make cities and their systems more sustainable by addressing the technical cause of inefficiencies. Sustainability is about changing behavior. The installation of public transportation systems alone doesn’t guarantee that people will actually use them and drive less. Therefore, to create a sustainable city, the factors that make people choose the sustainable option over the unsustainable one need to be addressed in a planning process. Extensive research in European and American cities resulted in five factors that can make a change towards sustainable behavior possible: the accessibility, the affordability, the attractiveness, and the availability of sustainable options and people’s awareness of their existence (the five A’s). This paper explains how these five factors must be incorporated in urban sustainability strategies and how they can create truly sustainable cities by enabling long-term behavior change.

Keywords

Sustainable cities Climate action Behavior change Urban planning 

References

  1. Barr, S. (2007). Factors Influencing Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors. A UK Case Study of Household Waste Management. Environment and Behavior, 39(4), 435–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Building Research Establishment: BREEAM. http://www.breeam.com/. Last Accessed 25 Jan 2017.
  3. Chicago Transit Authority. http://www.transitchicago.com/about/overview.aspx. Last Accessed 25 Jan 2017.
  4. City of Linz: solarCity. http://www.linz.at/solarCity. Last Accessed 12 Jan 2017.
  5. City of Vienna. (2015). Wienerinnen und Wiener gehen gerne zu Fuß—Studie „Zu Fuß gehen in Wien“. Stadt Wien.Google Scholar
  6. Chicago Tribune. (2016). Chicago tops NYC as most bike-friendly city in U.S. Chicago, 2016(9).Google Scholar
  7. Corral-Verdugo, V., Bechtel, R. B., & Fraijo-Sing, B. (2003). Environmental beliefs and water conservation: An empirical study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(3), 247–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gardner, G. T., & Stern, P. C. (2002). Environmental Problems and Human Behavior (2nd ed.). New York: Pearson Custom Publishing.Google Scholar
  9. Geller, E. S. (1989). Applied Behavior Analysis and Social Marketing: An Integration for Environmental Preservation. Journal of Social Issues, 45(1), 17–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Grohmann, P. (2006). Angebotsänderungen im öffentlichen Personennahverkehr (ÖPNV) und Auswirkungen auf die Nachfrage. Vienna: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag.Google Scholar
  11. Hoch, C. (2011). What planners do: Power, Politics, and Persuasion. San Francisco: APA Planners Press.Google Scholar
  12. Hosey, L. (2012). The shape of green: Aesthetics, Ecology, and Design (2nd ed.). Washington: Island Press.Google Scholar
  13. Hurtado, P. (2016). Smart Cities – Behavior Change towards Sustainability. http://smartcities-infosystem.eu/newsroom/blog/smart-cities-%E2%80%93-behavior-change-towards-sustainability. Last Accessed 25 Jan 2017.
  14. Lins, J. (2009). Sozialwissenschaftliche Evaluierung der solarCity Pichling. Universität Linz: Johannes Kepler.Google Scholar
  15. Living Future Institute: Living building challenge. https://living-future.org/lbc/. Last Accessed 12 Jan 2017.
  16. Maier, J. R. A., Fadel, G. M., & Battisto, D. G. (2009). An affordance-based approach to architectural theory, design, and practice. Design Studies, 30, 393–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Montgomery, C. (2013). Happy City, transforming our lives through urban design. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  18. Praschl, M., Scholl-Kuhn, C., & Risser, R. (1994). Gute Vorsätze und Realität: Die Diskrepanz zwischen Wissen und Handeln am Beispiel Verkehrsmittelwahl. Vienna: Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Jugend u. Familie.Google Scholar
  19. Schumacher, E. F. (1973). Small is beautiful, Economics as if people mattered. New York: Harper Perennial.Google Scholar
  20. Skinner, B. F. (1971). Beyond freedom & dignity. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  21. Skinner, B. F. (1987). Upon further reflection. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc.Google Scholar
  22. Stieninger, P. (2013). Changing human behavior towards energy-saving through urban planning. Chicago: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
  23. Sussman, A., & Hollander, J. B. (2015). Cognitive architecture. Designing for how we respond to the built environment. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Turner C, Frankel M. (2008). Energy performance of LEED for new construction buildings. New Buildings Institute.Google Scholar
  25. United Nations: Urbanization. http://www.unfpa.org/urbanization. Last Accessed 15 Jan 2017.
  26. U.S. Green Building Council. (2014). LEED® Core Concepts Guide. An Introduction to LEED and Green Building (3rd ed.). Washington: Green Building Council.Google Scholar
  27. Wener, R. E. (1989). Advances in evaluation of the built environment. In E. H. Zube & G. T. Moore (Eds.), Advances in environment, behavior, and design (Vol. 2, pp. 287–313).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Urban BreezesChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations