Different Approaches to Indoor Localization Based on Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons and Wi-Fi

  • Radek Bruha
  • Pavel Kriz
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10449)


Thanks to Global Navigation Satellite Systems, the position of a smartphone equipped with the particular receiver can be determined with an accuracy of a few meters outdoors, having a clear view of the sky. These systems, however, are not usable indoors, because there is no signal from satellites. Therefore, it is necessary to use other localization techniques indoors. This paper focuses on the use of Bluetooth Low Energy and Wi-Fi radio technologies. We have created a special mobile application for the Android operating system in order to evaluate these techniques. This application allows localization testing in a real environment within a building of a university campus. We compare multiple approaches based on K-Nearest Neighbors and Particle Filter algorithms that have been further modified. The combination of Low Energy Bluetooth and Wi-Fi appears to be a promising solution reaching the satisfying accuracy and minimal deployment costs.


Indoor localization Indoor positioning Bluetooth Low Energy Internet of Things iBeacon K-Nearest Neighbors Particle Filter 



The authors of this paper would like to thank Tereza Krizova for proofreading. This work and the contribution were also supported by a project of Students Grant Agency – FIM, University of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic (under ID: UHK-FIM-SP-2017). Radek Bruha is a student member of the research team.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Informatics and Quantitative Methods, Faculty of Informatics and ManagementUniversity of Hradec KraloveHradec KraloveCzech Republic

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