Hyperacute Ischemic Stroke in Adults: Evidence-Based Emergency Imaging

  • Manu S. GoyalEmail author
  • Andria L. Ford
  • Jin-Moo Lee
  • Katie D. Vo
Part of the Evidence-Based Imaging book series (Evidence-Based Imag.)


This chapter focuses on the imaging of hyperacute ischemic stroke patients within the first hours after stroke onset when the decisions to administer thrombolytics or perform thrombectomy are of paramount importance. The major goals of imaging during this hyperacute phase of ischemia include (1) the exclusion of intracerebral hemorrhage for thrombolysis, (2) the detection of acute ischemia in order to exclude stroke mimics, (3) emerging advanced imaging techniques to delineate ischemic but viable tissue for possible intervention beyond the current window, and (4) the imaging of pediatric acute stroke patients. The chapter provides an in-depth discussion of the literature supporting the use of specific modalities for each of the major goals listed.


Hyperacute ischemic stroke Emergency imaging Thrombolytics Intracerebral hemorrhage Thrombolysis Stroke mimics Acute ischemia Pediatric acute stroke patient Emerging advanced imaging Evidence-based imaging 



The authors would like to acknowledge the work of Dr. Weili Lin, who was a co-author with them on two chapters on imaging of acute ischemic stroke, one in Evidence-Based Neuroimaging and Diagnosis: Improving the Quality of Neuroimaging in Patients and one in Evidence-Based Imaging: Improving the Quality of Imaging in Patients, both published by Springer Science (2013 and 2011, respectively) and both edited by LS Medina et al. This current chapter draws upon those chapters, in the process of presenting thoroughly updated and significantly revised coverage of this subject for emergency imaging.


  1. 1.
    Sacco RL, et al. Stroke. 2013;44(7):2064–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Go AS, et al. Circulation. 2013;127(1):e6–e245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mozaffarian D, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;131(4):e29–322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Murphy SL, Xu J, Kochanek KD. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2013;61(4):1–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Feigin VL, et al. Lancet. 2014;383(9913):245–54.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Roger VL, et al. Circulation. 2012;125(1):e2–e220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Emberson J, et al. Lancet. 2014;384(9958):1929–35.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fransen PS, et al. Trials. 2014;15:343.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goyal M, et al. Lancet. 2016;387(10029):1723–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meretoja A, et al. Stroke. 2014;45(4):1053–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khatri P, et al. Lancet Neurol. 2014;13(6):567–74.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Saver JL, et al. JAMA. 2016;316(12):1279–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995;333(24):1581–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hacke W, et al. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(13):1317–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lansberg MG, et al. Stroke. 2009;40(6):2079–84.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Barber PA, et al. Neurology. 2001;56(8):1015–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tsivgoulis G, et al. Stroke. 2011;42(6):1771–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tsivgoulis G, et al. Stroke. 2015;46(5):1281–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zinkstok SM, et al. Stroke. 2013;44(4):1080–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lees KR, et al. Lancet. 2010;375(9727):1695–703.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goyal MS, et al. Stroke. 2016;47(4):1012–7.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smith WP Jr, Batnitzky S, Rengachary SS. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1981;136(3):543–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jacobs L, Kinkel WR, Heffner RR Jr. Neurology. 1976;26(12):1111–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Backes D, et al. Stroke. 2012;43(8):2115–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Connolly ES Jr, et al. Stroke. 2012;43(6):1711–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Blok KM, et al. Neurology. 2015;84(19):1927–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bradley WG Jr. Radiology. 1993;189(1):15–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Edelman RR, et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1986;7(5):751–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gomori JM, et al. Radiology. 1985;157(1):87–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Patel MR, Edelman RR, Warach S. Stroke. 1996;27(12):2321–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schellinger PD, et al. Stroke. 1999;30(4):765–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fiebach JB, et al. Stroke. 2004;35(2):502–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kidwell CS, et al. JAMA. 2004;292(15):1823–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chalela JA, et al. Lancet. 2007;369(9558):293–8.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Runchey S, McGee S. JAMA. 2010;303(22):2280–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Maurer M, et al. Stroke. 1998;29(12):2563–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kukulska-Pawluczuk B, Ksiazkiewicz B, Nowaczewska M. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81(6):1253–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Libman RB, et al. Arch Neurol. 1995;52(11):1119–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Norris JW, Hachinski VC. Lancet. 1982;1(8267):328–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kothari R, et al. Stroke. 1995;26(6):937–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pexman JH, et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001;22(8):1534–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Patel SC, et al. JAMA. 2001;286(22):2830–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Schriger DL, et al. JAMA. 1998;279(16):1293–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Grotta JC, et al. Stroke. 1999;30(8):1528–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Biesbroek JM, et al. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;35(6):493–501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hopyan J, et al. Radiology. 2010;255(1):142–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Camargo EC, et al. Radiology. 2007;244(2):541–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kucharczyk J, et al. Magn Reson Med. 1991;19(2):311–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Reith W, et al. Neurology. 1995;45(1):172–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mintorovitch J, et al. Magn Reson Med. 1991;18(1):39–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Warach S, et al. Ann Neurol. 1995;37(2):231–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ackerman JJ, Neil JJ. NMR Biomed. 2010;23(7):725–33.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Warach S, Boska M, Welch KM. Stroke. 1997;28(3):481–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gonzalez RG, et al. Radiology. 1999;210(1):155–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lovblad KO, et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1998;19(6):1061–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fiebach JB, et al. Stroke. 2002;33(9):2206–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Marks MP, et al. Radiology. 1996;199(2):403–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kidwell CS, et al. Stroke. 1999;30(6):1174–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ay H, et al. Neurology. 1999;52(9):1784–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Petanjek Z, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011;108(32):13281–6.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ebisu T, et al. Magn Reson Imaging. 1996;14(9):1113–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ohta K, et al. J Neurol. 1999;246(8):736–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bahn MM, et al. Arch Neurol. 1997;54(11):1411–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gauvain KM, et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001;177(2):449–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chu K, et al. Arch Neurol. 2001;58(6):993–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hasegawa Y, et al. Stroke. 1996;27(9):1648–55; Discussion 1655–6.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wardlaw JM, et al. Stroke. 2004;35(11):2477–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Aoki J, et al. J Neurol Sci. 2010;293(1–2):39–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Thomalla G, et al. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10(11):978–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Emeriau S, et al. Stroke. 2013;44(6):1647–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fisher M, Albers GW. Ann Neurol. 2013;73(1):4–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    MR WITNESS Trial. in International Stroke Conference (ISC). 2016. Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Thomalla G, et al. Int J Stroke. 2014;9(6):829–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Shah S, et al. Neurology. 2015;84(24):2438–44.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hacke W, et al. The European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS). JAMA. 1995;274(13):1017–25.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Toni D, et al. Neurology. 1996;46(2):341–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Larrue V, et al. Stroke. 1997;28(5):957–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    von Kummer R, et al. Radiology. 1997;205(2):327–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Barber PA, et al. Lancet. 2000;355(9216):1670–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Puetz V, et al. Int J Stroke. 2009;4(5):354–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tong DC, et al. Stroke. 2000;31(10):2378–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Selim M, et al. Stroke. 2002;33(8):2047–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Vo KD, et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24(4):674–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Scalzo F, et al. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013;31(6):961–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tong DC, et al. Arch Neurol. 2001;58(4):587–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Charidimou A, et al. Stroke. 2013;44(4):995–1001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Dannenberg S, et al. Stroke. 2014;45(10):2900–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Fiehler J, et al. Stroke. 2007;38(10):2738–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gratz PP, et al. Stroke. 2014;45(6):1684–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Nighoghossian N, et al. Stroke. 2002;33(3):735–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rivkin MJ, et al. Stroke. 2015;46(3):880–5.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Campbell BC, et al. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(11):1009–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Goyal M, et al. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(11):1019–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Jovin TG, et al. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(24):2296–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Saver JL, et al. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(24):2285–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Broderick JP, et al. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(10):893–903.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ciccone A, Valvassori L, Investigators SE. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(25):2433–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kidwell CS, et al. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(10):914–23.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hansen CK, et al. Int J Stroke. 2015;10(3):336–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Parsons M, et al. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(12):1099–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Enrolment stopped early in DAWN trial, in NeuroNews International. 2017. BIBA Medical Ltd: London, UK.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bash S, et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005;26(5):1012–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Mair G, et al. Stroke. 2015;46(1):102–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kim EY, et al. Stroke. 2005;36(12):2745–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Riedel CH, et al. Stroke. 2012;43(9):2319–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lev MH, et al. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2001;25(4):520–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hirai T, et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2002;23(1):93–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Katz DA, et al. Radiology. 1995;195(2):445–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Knauth M, et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1997;18(6):1001–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Shrier DA, et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1997;18(6):1011–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wildermuth S, et al. Stroke. 1998;29(5):935–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Verro P, et al. Stroke. 2002;33(1):276–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Graf J, et al. J Neurol. 2000;247(10):760–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Nguyen-Huynh MN, et al. Stroke. 2008;39(4):1184–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Wardlaw JM, et al. Lancet. 2006;367(9521):1503–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Havsteen I, et al. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2012;21(8):684–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Gupta R, et al. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2006;27(3):221–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Power S, et al. Eur J Radiol. 2015;84(7):1333–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Frolich AM, et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34(10):1908–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Chung HJ, et al. J Clin Neurosci. 2014;21(4):596–600.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bennett DL, et al. PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e99020.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Dittrich R, et al. J Neurol. 2007;254(11):1491–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hopyan JJ, et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008;29(10):1826–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Josephson SA, Dillon WP, Smith WS. Neurology. 2005;64(10):1805–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Krol AL, et al. Stroke. 2007;38(8):2364–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Mehdiratta M, et al. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2008;17(5):273–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    McDonald JS, et al. Radiology. 2013;267(1):119–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    McDonald RJ, et al. Radiology. 2013;267(1):106–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Cloft HJ, et al. Magn Reson Imaging. 1996;14(6):593–600.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Willig DS, et al. Radiology. 1998;208(2):447–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Feldmann E, et al. Neurology. 2007;68(24):2099–106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Coutts SB, et al. Stroke. 2004;35(11):2472–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Schramm P, et al. Stroke. 2004;35(7):1652–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Pulli B, et al. Radiology. 2012;262(2):593–604.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Yoo AJ, et al. J Neuroimaging. 2012;22(4):329–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Wintermark M, et al. Stroke. 2006;37(4):979–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Mokin M, et al. Predictive value of RAPID assessed perfusion thresholds on final infarct volume in SWIFT PRIME (Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment). Stroke. 2017.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Schaefer PW, Grant PE, Gonzalez RG. Radiology. 2000;217(2):331–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Chemmanam T, et al. Neurology. 2010;75(12):1040–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Olivot JM, et al. Stroke. 2009;40(10):3245–51.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Perkins CJ, et al. Stroke. 2001;32(12):2774–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Yoo AJ, et al. Stroke. 2009;40(6):2046–54.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Wisco D, et al. Stroke. 2014;45(2):467–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Sheth KN, et al. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013;5(Suppl 1):i62–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Derdeyn CP, Grubb RL Jr, Powers WJ. Neurology. 1999;53(2):251–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Donahue J, Wintermark M. J Neuroradiol. 2015;42(1):21–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Albers GW, et al. Ann Neurol. 2006;60(5):508–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Schlaug G, et al. Neurology. 1999;53(7):1528–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Jensen-Kondering U, Baron JC. Stroke. 2012;43(8):2264–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    An H, et al. Stroke. 2015;46(4):982–8.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Lansberg MG, et al. Lancet Neurol. 2012;11(10):860–7.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Huang X, et al. Lancet Neurol. 2015;14(4):368–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Powers WJ. Cerebral hemodynamics in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Ann Neurol. 1991;29(3):231–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Awad I, et al. Stroke. 1982;13(4):469–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Liebeskind DS. Stroke. 2003;34(9):2279–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Maas MB, et al. Stroke. 2009;40(9):3001–5.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Fonarow GC, et al. JAMA. 2014;311(16):1632–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lindsberg PJ, et al. Neurology. 2006;67(2):334–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Meretoja A, et al. Neurology. 2013;81(12):1071–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Ruff IM, et al. Stroke. 2014;45(2):504–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    ASA/AHA, A.S.A. Target: Stroke Phase II. 2014.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Kostopoulos P, et al. Neurology. 2012;78(23):1849–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Parker SA, et al. Stroke. 2015;46(5):1384–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Rajan S, et al. JAMA Neurol. 2015;72(2):229–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Walter S, et al. Lancet Neurol. 2012;11(5):397–404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manu S. Goyal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andria L. Ford
    • 2
  • Jin-Moo Lee
    • 2
  • Katie D. Vo
    • 1
  1. 1.Mallinckrodt Institute of RadiologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations