Critically Assessing the Literature for Evidence-Based Imaging: Understanding Error and Bias

  • C. Craig BlackmoreEmail author
  • L. Santiago Medina
  • James G. Ravenel
  • Gerard A. Silvestri
  • Kimberly E. Applegate
Part of the Evidence-Based Imaging book series (Evidence-Based Imag.)


Evidence-based imaging (EBI) requires the critical assessment and application of the best available evidence to patient imaging. Unfortunately, the published studies that comprise the available evidence are often limited by bias, small sample size, and methodological inadequacy. Further, the information provided in published reports may be insufficient to allow estimation of the quality of the research. Initiatives by journal editors to improve the reporting of research studies, including the CONSORT (1), STARD (2), SQUIRE (3), and others, provide useful guides but are incompletely implemented. The objective of this chapter is to summarize the common sources of error and bias in the imaging literature to guide the critical assessment required for EBI.


Error Bias Critical assessment Medical literature Evidence-based imaging Qualitative literature summary 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Craig Blackmore
    • 1
    Email author
  • L. Santiago Medina
    • 2
    • 3
  • James G. Ravenel
    • 4
  • Gerard A. Silvestri
    • 5
  • Kimberly E. Applegate
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Center for Health Care Improvement ScienceVirginia Mason Medical CenterSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Nicklaus Children’s HospitalMiami Children’s Health SystemsMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Florida International UniversityHerbert Wertheim College of MedicineMiamiUSA
  4. 4.Department of Radiology and Radiologic SciencesMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA
  5. 5.Department of MedicineMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA
  6. 6.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Kentucky Children’s HospitalLexingtonUSA

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