Acute Pulmonary Embolism in Adults and Children: Evidence-Based Emergency Imaging, Evaluation, and Diagnosis

  • Linda B. HaramatiEmail author
  • Vishal K. Patel
  • Leonard M. Freeman
  • Paul Thacker
  • Edward Y. Lee
Part of the Evidence-Based Imaging book series (Evidence-Based Imag.)


Pulmonary embolism is a common disease with a high morbidity and mortality burden. Its clinical presentation is quite variable, making accurate diagnosis challenging. In this chapter, we examine how clinical assessment determines pretest probability and then guides the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism. The important role of imaging in work-up is summarized, and various imaging modalities are compared and evaluated based on up-to-date medical literature. Pulmonary embolism diagnosis in pregnancy is also briefly reviewed and evidence-based diagnostic algorithms for evaluation of acute pulmonary embolism are presented.


Pulmonary embolism D-dimer Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy Computed tomography pulmonary angiography Duplex ultrasound Evidence-based imaging Emergency imaging 



Computed tomography


Ventilation/perfusion study


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda B. Haramati
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vishal K. Patel
    • 2
  • Leonard M. Freeman
    • 3
  • Paul Thacker
    • 4
  • Edward Y. Lee
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Radiology and MedicineMontefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyMontefiore Medical CenterBronxUSA
  3. 3.Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine (Moses Div)Montefiore Medical CenterBronxUSA
  4. 4.Department of RadiologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  5. 5.Department of Radiology, Division of Thoracic ImagingBoston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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