Advertisement

Review of Agent-Based Models of Social Conflict and Civil Violence

  • Carlos M. Lemos
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Complexity book series (BRIEFSCOMPLEXITY)

Abstract

This chapter contains a review of the state of the art on agent-based models for simulation of large-scale social conflict and violence. It is structured in four parts. The first contains a summary of general definitions and concepts. The second contains the presentation and discussion of Epstein’s agent-based model, which is a landmark model of civil and ethnic violence due to its simplicity, soundness, and explanatory power. The third part contains a review of extensions of Epstein’s model that have been proposed by several authors. The chapter ends with some remarks on the limitations of existing ABM and on possibilities for their improvement.

Keywords

Agent-based modeling Epstein’s model of civil violence Agent-based models of conflict Agent interaction rules Mechanisms 

References

  1. 3.
    S.E. Asch, Effects of Group Pressure on the Modification and Distortion of Judgements (Carnegie Press, Pittsburg, PA, 1951), pp. 177–190Google Scholar
  2. 9.
    D. Bischof, Why Arabs Rebel - Relative Deprivation Revisited. Master’s thesis, Fakultät Sozial und Wirtschaftswissenschaften der Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg, 2012Google Scholar
  3. 18.
    T.P. Davies, H.M. Fry, A.G. Wilson, S.R. Bishop, A mathematical model of the London riots and their policing. Sci. Rep. 3(1303), (February 2013)Google Scholar
  4. 21.
    J.M. Epstein, Modeling civil violence: An agent-based computational approach. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 7243–7250 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 23.
    J.M. Epstein, Agent_Zero. Toward Neurocognitive Foundations for Generative Social Science (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2013)Google Scholar
  6. 24.
    J.M. Epstein, J.D. Steinbruner, M.T. Parker, Modeling Civil Violence: An Agent-Based Computational Approach. Center on Social and Economic Dynamics, Working Paper No. 20, January 2001Google Scholar
  7. 26.
    M. Fonoberova, V.A. Fonoberov, I. Mezic, J. Mezic, P. Jeffrey Brantingham, Nonlinear dynamics of crime and violence in urban settings. J. Artif. Soc. Soc. Simul. 15(1), (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 27.
    D.R. Forsyth, Group Dynamics, 5th edn. (Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2010)Google Scholar
  9. 31.
    N. Gilbert, Agent-Based Models (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences) (SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, 2007)Google Scholar
  10. 35.
    M.S. Granovetter, Threshold models of collective behavior. Am. J. Sociol. 83(6), 1420–1443 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 36.
    V. Grimm, U. Bergern, D.L. DeAngelis, J. Gary Polhill, J. Giskee, S.F. Railsback, The ODD protocol: A review and first update. Ecol. Model. 221(221), 2760–2768 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 38.
    T.R. Gurr, Why Men Rebel (Routledge, 2011). Fortieth Anniversary Paperback EditionGoogle Scholar
  13. 41.
    J.-W. Kim, R.A. Hanneman, A computational model of worker protest. J. Artif. Soc. Soc. Simul. 14(3), (January 2011)Google Scholar
  14. 42.
    T. Kuran, Sparks and prairie fires: a theory of unanticipated political revolution. Public Choice 61, 41–74 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 44.
    C.M. Lemos, R.J. Lopes, H. Coelho, On legitimacy feedback mechanisms in agent-based models of civil violence. Int. J. Intell. Syst. 31(2), 106–127 (February 2016)Google Scholar
  16. 50.
    J.H. Miller, S.L. Page, Complex Adaptive Systems (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2007)Google Scholar
  17. 52.
    A. Moro, Understanding the dynamics of violent political revolutions in an agent-based framework. PLoS ONE 11(4), 1–17 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 58.
    R.A. Rescorla, A.R. Wagner, A Theory of Pavlovian Conditioning: Variations in the Effectiveness of Reinforcement and Nonreinforcement, vol. 20, pp. 64–69. Classical Conditioning ii: Current Research and Theory edition (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1972)Google Scholar
  19. 62.
    S.J. Russel, P. Norvig, Artificial Intelligence. A Modern Approach (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1995)Google Scholar
  20. 63.
    I. Salehyan, C. Hendrix, Social Conflict Analysis Database Version 3.1, November 2014Google Scholar
  21. 64.
    T.C. Schelling, Models of segregation. Am. Econ. Rev. 59(2), 488–493 (1969)Google Scholar
  22. 67.
    H. Tajfel, Social identity and intergroup behavior. Soc. Sci. Inf. 13, 65–93 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 78.
    U. Wilensky, NetLogo Rebellion Model (Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 2004)Google Scholar
  24. 80.
    M. Wooldridge, An Introduction to MultiAgent Systems, 2nd edn. (Wiley, New Yor, 2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos M. Lemos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Religion, Philosophy and HistoryUniversity of AgderKristiansandNorway

Personalised recommendations