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Antifungal Activities of Essential Oils from Himalayan Plants

  • Chandra Shekhar Mathela
  • Vinod Kumar
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Development and Biodiversity book series (SDEB, volume 19)

Abstract

Himalayan temperate and subalpine flora with its diverse medicinal and aromatic species occupies an important position in the field of herbal pharmaceuticals. The spread of multidrug-resistant strains of fungi and relatively small number of antifungal drugs available made it necessary to look for new sources of antifungal molecules. This has led to the search for therapeutic alternatives, particularly among medicinal and aromatic plants and compounds isolated from them for their antifungal potential. Essential oils are naturally occurring phytochemicals with generally less deleterious side effects than corresponding synthetic drugs. Also, the resurgence of interest in natural control of human infectious fungal pathogens and increasing demand for effective, safe natural extracts and their constituents could lead to new antifungal agents. This could support the use of the plants in the treatment of various infective human diseases and protection of plant crops. This chapter gives an overview on the susceptibility of human and phytopathogenic fungi toward different essential oils and their chemical constituents, largely belonging to the tropical and subalpine Indian Himalayan region, viz. Nepeta, Erigeron, Aster, Cinnamomum, Thymus, Mentha, Senecio and their constituents such as new terpene iridoids, actinidine, nepetalactone, acetylenic esters, thymol, carvacrol and eugenol. Several of these have been found to possess high antifungal properties against various fungi.

Keywords

Himalayan plants Essential oils Antifungal activity Human and plant pathogenic fungi Iridoids Actinidine Nepetalactone 

Abbreviations

DMSO

Dimethylsulfoxide

EOs

Essential oils

GC-FT IR

Gas chromatography-Fourier transform infrared

GC-MS

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

g

Gram

HCA

Hierarchical cluster analysis

IC50

50% Inhibitory concentration

LC-MS

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

LC-NMR

Liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance

MAPs

Medicinal and aromatic plants

µg

Microgram

µL

Microliter

mg

Milligram

mL

Milliliter

mm

Millimeter

MIC

Minimum inhibitory concentration

PF

Poison food

PDA

Potato dextrose agar

PCA

Principal component analysis

NaCl

Sodium chloride

Na2SO4

Sodium sulfate

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Department of Chemistry, Kumaun University, Nainital, for providing laboratory facilities, Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Dehradun, for plant identification and Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, for their valuable help in carrying out some experiments.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryKumaun UniversityNainitalIndia

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