Microglial Function in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Injury and Recovery

  • A-Hyun Cho
  • Neethu Michael
  • David H. Cribbs
  • Mark J. FisherEmail author
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR)


Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10–15% of all strokes and is a major cause of disability and mortality. Introduction of blood components (e.g., thrombin, heme, and platelets) following ICH initiates neuroinflammatory responses mainly mediated by microglia, which are the resident immune cells in the central nervous system. Microglia have been shown to have dual roles in ICH, both beneficial and detrimental. The beneficial role involves phagocytosis of cellular debris and red blood cells after the hemorrhagic incident, while the detrimental role involves the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines resulting in neuroinflammation. These dual and contradictory roles of microglia are thought to be implemented by two distinct phenotypes: classically-activated microglia and alternatively-activated microglia. We discuss herein the role of microglia in ICH with particular emphasis on its role in brain injury and recovery after ICH.


Microglia Intracerebral hemorrhage Brain injury Brain recovery Neuroinflammation 



Blood-brain barrier


B-cell lymphoma-2


B-cell lymphoma-extra large


Cluster of differentiation 36


Cluster of differentiation 47


CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha


Central nervous system


CX3C chemokine receptor-1


Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2


Heme oxygenase


Intracerebral hemorrhage






Major histocompatibility complex II


Mechanistic target of rapamycin


Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells


Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2


Protease activated receptor-1


Phosphoinositide 3-kinase


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma


Reactive oxygen species


Signal-regulatory protein α


Transforming growth factor-beta 1


Toll-like receptors


Tumor necrosis factor-α



This work is supported by NIH R01 NS20989


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A-Hyun Cho
    • 1
    • 2
  • Neethu Michael
    • 2
  • David H. Cribbs
    • 3
  • Mark J. Fisher
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyYeoudio St. Mary’s Hospital, Catholic University of KoreaSeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  3. 3.UCI MINDUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  4. 4.Department of Anatomy & NeurobiologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  5. 5.Department of Pathology & Laboratory MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  6. 6.Department of NeurologyUC Irvine Medical CenterOrangeUSA

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