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Neural Network Regeneration After Stroke

  • Norihito ShimamuraEmail author
  • Takeshi Katagai
  • Masato Naraoka
  • Hiroki Ohkuma
Chapter
  • 792 Downloads
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR)

Abstract

Stroke remains a major cause of disability throughout the world: paralysis, cognitive impairment, aphasia, apraxia and so on. Surgical or medical intervention is curative in only a small number of cases. Stroke cases with morbidity require rehabilitation. Neurorehabilitation generally improves patient outcome, but the involved mechanisms have not been clarified. Recent advancements in technology are revealing the mechanisms of neurorehabilitation from the gene and up to neural network remodeling. Rehabilitation in clinical application, however, should be guided by convincing evidence. In this chapter we review the evidence for the regeneration of the neural network after stroke.

Keywords

Cerebrovascular Mechanism Neural network Rehabilitation Reorganization Stroke 

Abbreviations

ADL

Activities of daily living

AHA

American Heart Association

AMP

Adenosine monophosphate

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

BOLD

Blood oxygen level dependent

CFA

Caudal forelimb area

CIMT

Constraint-induced movement therapy

DTI

Diffusion-tensor imaging

FA

Fractional anisotropy

f-MRI

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

GABA

γ-Aminobutyric acid

hBMSC

Human bone marrow stromal cells

IL

Interleukin

Muse

Multilineage differentiating stress enduring

RFA

Rostral forelimb area

TMS

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

USA

United State of America

VNS

Vagal nerve stimulation

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Mark Inglin (University of Basel) for his editorial assistance.

Competing interests

We have no conflict of interest.

Funding

This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research of Japan, grant number 26462149 for Norihito Shimamura.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norihito Shimamura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Takeshi Katagai
    • 1
  • Masato Naraoka
    • 1
  • Hiroki Ohkuma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryHirosaki University Graduate School of MedicineHirosakiJapan

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