Advertisement

Conclusion

  • David Maher
Chapter
Part of the Rethinking Political Violence book series (RPV)

Abstract

The concluding chapter argues that while some civil wars may have negative economic effects, it is not tenable to argue that ‘civil war represents development in reverse’. Some civil wars may produce violence that is conducive to the interests of global capital: Colombia during the 2000s is a case in point. In this regard, this chapter provides a summary of the main findings of the book and reiterates a crucial point: when certain groups economically benefit from civil war violence (for example, rebel groups, states or corporations), large swathes of people are nevertheless acutely and negatively affected by this violence, with processes of violent economic development producing tremendous suffering for millions of people across the world.

References

  1. Alsema, Adriaan. 2016. Santos hints new Colombia peace deal will be ratified by Congress, not through referendum. Colombia Reports. https://colombiareports.com/santos-hints-new-colombia-peace-deal-will-ratified-congress-not-referendum/. Accessed 16 Nov 2016.
  2. Barkawi, Tarak. 2001. War inside the free world: The democratic peace and the cold war in the third world. In Democracy, liberalism and war: Rethinking the democratic peace debate, ed. Tarak Barkawi and Mark Laffey, 107–128. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  3. Blakeley, Ruth. 2009. State terrorism and neoliberalism: The north in the south. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Blanton, Robert G., and Clair Apodaca. 2007. Economic globalization and violent civil conflict: Is openness a pathway to peace? The Social Science Journal 44: 599–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Butti, Elena. 2016. Reasons behind low turnout in Colombia peace vote pose serious threats to democracy. Colombia Reports. http://colombiareports.com/reasons-behind-low-turnout-colombia-peace-vote-pose-serious-threats-democracy/.
  6. Cramer, Christopher. 2006. Civil war is not a stupid thing: Accounting for violence in developing countries. London: Hurst & Company.Google Scholar
  7. Economist. 2010. Colombia’s presidential handover: Let Santos be Santos. Available from http://www.economist.com/node/16640379. Accessed 1 Jan 2012.
  8. EIA. n.d. “Colombia.” Energy Information Administration. https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.cfm?iso=COL. Accessed 14 June 2017.
  9. Gates, Scott, Hegre Hegre, Håvard M. Nygard, and Håvard Strand. 2012. Development consequences of armed conflict. World Development 40 (9): 1713–1722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gleditsch, Nils Petter, Håvard Hegre, and Håvard Strand. 2009. Democracy and civil war. In Handbook of war studies III, ed. Manus I. Midlarsky, 79–90. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  11. Gómez, Carlos J.L., Luis Sánchez-Ayala, and Gonzalo A. Vargas. 2015. Armed conflict, land grabs and primitive accumulation in Colombia: Micro processes, macro trends and the puzzles in between. Journal of Peasant Studies 42 (2): 255–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gutiérrez Sanín, Francisco. 2009. Stupid and expensive? A critique of the costs-of-violence literature, Crisis states working papers series no.2: Working paper no. 48. Regional and global axes of conflict. London: DESTIN/LSE.Google Scholar
  13. Harvey, David. 2005. A brief history of neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hegre, Håvard, Scott Gates, Tanja Ellingsen, and Nils Petter Gleditsch. 2005. Towards a democratic civil peace. In War, ed. Paul F. Diehl, 165–193. London: Library of International Relations.Google Scholar
  15. Hristov, Jasmin. 2009. Blood & capital: The paramilitarization of Colombia. Toronto: Between the Lines.Google Scholar
  16. Jackson, Richard. 2014. Critical Perspectives. In Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars, ed. Edward Newman and Karl DeRouen, 79–90. Abingdon/Oxon/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Kraul, Chris. 2011. Colombia is a rising oil exporter to US: The South American nation now ranks 10th among those sending crude our way. LA Times [online database]. Available from http://articles.latimes.com/2011/apr/07/business/la-fi-Colombia-oil-20110407. Accessed 11 Sept 2012.
  18. Maher, David., and Andrew Thomson. 2017. Pro-government militias and spoiling peace: The threat of paramilitary violence to the peace process in Colombia. Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Association for Peace and Conflict Studies (IAPCS), University of Manchester, Manchester, UK, 11–12 September 2017.Google Scholar
  19. Mann, Michael. 2001. Democracy and ethnic war. In Democracy, liberalism and war: Rethinking the democratic peace debates, ed. Tarak Barkawi and Mark Laffey, 67–86. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  20. Mehlum, Halvor, and Karl Moene. 2012. Aggressive elites and vulnerable entrepreneurs: Trust and cooperation in the shadow of conflict. In The Oxford handbook of the economics of peace and conflict, ed. Michelle R. Garfinkel and Stergios Skaperdas, 706–729. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Mihalache-O’Keef, Andreea, and Tatiana Vashchilko. 2010. Foreign direct investors in conflict zones. In Ending wars, consolidating peace: Economic perspectives (Adelphi series 50), ed. Mats Berdal and Achim Wennman, 137–156. London: Routledge/IISS.Google Scholar
  22. Mindefensa. 2016. Logros de la Política de Defensa y Seguridad Todos por un Nuevo País, Viceministerio para las Políticas y Asuntos Internacionales Dirección de Estudios Estratégicos—Grupo de Información Estadística. Bogotá: Mindefensa/Grupo de Información Estadística.Google Scholar
  23. Murphy, Helen. 2016. Colombian peace deal passed by Congress, ending 52-year war. Reuters, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-colombia-peace-idUSKBN13P1D2. Accessed 10 May 2017.
  24. Oneal, John R., and Bruce M. Russet. 1997. The classical liberals were right: Democracy, interdependence, and conflict, 1950–1985. International Studies Quarterly 41 (2): 267–293. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468-2478.00042/abstract.
  25. Polachek, Solomon William. 1980. Conflict and trade. The Journal of Conflict Resolution 24 (1): 55–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Polachek, Solomon W., John Robst, and Yuan-Ching Chang. 1999. Liberalism and interdependence: Extending the trade-conflict model. Journal of Peace Research 36 (4): 405–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reuters. 2011a. Colombia authorizes wider natural gas exports. Available from http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/10/18/energy-colombia-natgas-idUSN1E79H20320111018. Accessed 11 Sept 2012.
  28. ———. 2011b. Colombia oil output hits new historic high in March. Available from http://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/idAFN0512689620110405. Accessed 11 Sept 2012.
  29. ———. 2015. Colombia’s FARC rebels step up infrastructure attacks, kill three police. http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-colombia-rebels-idUKKBN0OR1ZM20150611. Accessed 15 June 2017.
  30. Rosato, Sebastian. 2003. The flawed logic of democratic peace theory. The American Political Science Review 97 (4): 585–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rousseau, David L., Christopher Gelpi, Dan Reiter, and Paul K. Huth. 1996. Assessing the dyadic nature of the democratic peace, 1918–88. The American Political Science Review 90 (3): 512–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schweller, Randall L. 2000. US democracy promotion: Realist reflections. In American democracy promotion: Impulses, strategies, and impacts, ed. Cox Michael, G. John Ikenberry, and Takashi Inoguichi, 41–62. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Skaperdas, Stergios. 2009. The costs of organized violence: A review of the evidence. In The costs of violence, ed. Stergios Skaperdas, Rodrigo Soares, Alys Willman, and Stephen C. Miller, 1–25. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  34. Stratfor. 2012. Assessments: Attacks on Colombia’s energy infrastructure. Accessed 15 June 2017.Google Scholar
  35. World Bank. 2011. World development report 2011: Conflict security and development. Washington, DC: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Maher
    • 1
  1. 1.Lecturer in International RelationsUniversity of SalfordSalfordUK

Personalised recommendations