Advertisement

Civil War, Development and Economic Globalisation

  • David Maher
Chapter
Part of the Rethinking Political Violence book series (RPV)

Abstract

This Chapter provides an introduction to the book, detailing the progress of security and development studies during the 1990s and 2000s. The core topic area that the book investigates – namely, the economic consequences of civil war – is then introduced. The idea that civil wars inevitably lead to economic decline, a pervasive assumption within the relevant literature, is challenged and this chapter asks an uneasy question: ‘Can violence in civil wars facilitate economic development and integration into the global economy?’ This chapter then discusses key concepts (namely, globalisation, civil war and economic development) and discusses a critical theoretical framework for studying security and development. Methods (particularly process tracing) are also outlined.

References

  1. Apple, Michael W. 2004. Creating difference: Neo-liberalism, neo-conservatism and the politics of educational reform. Educational Policy 18 (1): 12–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ballentine, Karen, and Jake Sherman. 2003. Introduction. In The political economy of armed conflict: Beyond greed and grievance, ed. Karen Ballentine and Jake Sherman, 1–15. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  3. Barbieri, Katherine, and Rafael Reuveny. 2005. Economic globalization and civil war. The Journal of Politics 67 (4): 1228–1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barkawi, Tarak. 2005. Globalization and war. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  5. Beach, Derek, and Rasmus Brun Pedersen. 2013. Process-tracing methods: Foundations and guidelines. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ———. 2016. Causal case study methods: Foundations and guidelines for comparing, matching and tracing. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beattie, Peter. 2012. There’s something about Mary Anastasia O’Grady. NACLA. http://nacla.org/blog/2012/6/11/theres-something-about-mary-anastasia-ogrady. Accessed 15 Dec 2016.
  8. Bennett, Andrew, and Jeffrey T. Checkel. 2015. Process tracing: From philosophical roots to best practices. In Process tracing: From metaphor to analytical tool, ed. Andrew Bennett and Jeffrey T. Checkel, 3–37. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Berdal, Mats. 2003. How ‘new’ are ‘new wars’? Global economic change and war in the early 21st century. Global Governance 9 (4): 477–502.Google Scholar
  10. Berdal, Mats, and David Malone. 2000. Introduction. In Greed and grievance: Economic agendas in civil wars, ed. Mats Berdal and David Malone, 1–15. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  11. Birch, Kean, and Vlad Mykhnenko. 2010. Introduction: A world the right way up. In The rise and fall of neo-liberalism: The collapse of an economic order? ed. Kean Birch and Vlad Mykhnenko, 1–20. London: Zed.Google Scholar
  12. Blanton, Robert G., and Clair Apodaca. 2007. Economic globalization and violent civil conflict: Is openness a pathway to peace? The Social Science Journal 44: 599–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blattman, Christopher, and Edward Miguel. 2010. Civil war. Journal of Economic Literature 48 (1): 3–57. https://doi.org/10.1257/jel.48.1.3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buhaug, Halvard, and Jan Ketil Rød. 2006. Local determinants of African civil wars, 1970–2001. Political Geography 25: 315–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buhaug, Halvard, Lars-Erik Cederman, and Jan Ketil Rød. 2008. Disaggregating ethno-nationalist civil wars: A dyadic test of exclusion theory. International Organization 62 (Summer): 531–551.Google Scholar
  16. Buhaug, Halvard, Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, Helge Holtermann, and Gudrun Østby. 2009a. Poverty, inequality, and conflict: Using within-country variation to evaluate competing hypotheses, Presented at 50th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association. New York.Google Scholar
  17. Buhaug, Halvard, Scott Gates, and Päivi Lujala. 2009b. Geography, rebel capability, and the duration of civil conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution 53 (4): 544–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bussmann, Margit, and Indra de Soysa. 2006. How taxing is trade? Globalization, state capacity, & civil war, Working paper as part of the polarization and conflict project, European Commission-DG Research Sixth Framework Programme.Google Scholar
  19. Bussmann, Margit, and Gerald Schneider. 2007. When globalization discontent turns violent: Foreign economic liberalization and internal war. International Studies Quarterly 51 (1): 79–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cater, Charles. 2003. The political economy of conflict and UN intervention: Rethinking the critical cases of Africa. In The political economy of armed conflict: Beyond greed and grievance, ed. Karen Ballentine and Jake Sherman, 19–46. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  21. Cederman, Lars-Erik, and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. 2009. Introduction to special issue on disaggregating civil wars. Journal of Conflict Resolution: 487–495.Google Scholar
  22. Cederman, Lars-Erik, Luc Girardin, and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. 2009. Ethno-nationalist triads: Assessing the influence of kin groups on civil wars. World Politics 61 (3): 403–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Centro de Investigación y Educación Popular (CINEP). 2008. Marco conceptual: Banco de datos de derechos humanos y violencia política. Bogotá: CINEP.Google Scholar
  24. ———. n.d. Banco de datos de derechos humanos y violencia política del CINEP [online database]. Available from http://www.nocheyniebla.org/. Accessed 12 Sept 2012.
  25. CERAC. n.d. Database of the armed conflict in Colombia.Google Scholar
  26. Checkel, Jeffrey T. 2013. Transnational dynamics of civil war. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. CODHES. 2011. De la seguridad a la prosperidad democrática en medio del conflicto. In Codhes Informa: Boletín de la Consultoría para los Derechos Humanos y el Desplazamiento. Bogotá: CODHES.Google Scholar
  28. Cohen, Benjamin J. 2008. International political economy: An intellectual history. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Collier, Paul. 2000. Doing well out of war. In Greed and grievance: Economic agendas in civil wars, ed. Mats Berdal and David Malone, 91–111. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  30. Collier, David. 2011. Understanding process tracing. Political Science & Politics 44 (4): 823–830.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S104909651100142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Collier, Paul, Lani Elliot, Håvard Hegre, Anke Hoeffler, Marta Reynal-Querol, and Nicholas Sambanis. 2003. Breaking the conflict trap: Civil war and development policy. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  32. Colombia Defenders, 2009. Climate of fear: Colombian human rights defenders under threat. n.p.: Colombia Defenders.Google Scholar
  33. Cox, Robert. 1981. Social forces, states and world orders: Beyond international relations theory. Millennium 10 (2): 126–155.  https://doi.org/10.1177/03058298810100020501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. ———. 1996. Approaches to world order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cramer, Christopher. 2002a. War, peace and capitalism. In Anti-capitalism: A marxist introduction, ed. Alfredo Saad Filho, 152–163. London: Pluto.Google Scholar
  36. ———. 2002b. Homo economicus goes to war: Methodological individualism, rational choice and the political economy of war. World Development 30 (11): 1845–1864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. ———. 2003. Does inequality cause conflict? Journal of International Development 15 (4): 397–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. ———. 2005. Angola and the theory of war. In Is violence inevitable in Africa? Theories of conflict and approaches to conflict prevention, ed. Patrick Chabal, Ulf Engel, and Anna-Maria Gentili, 17–34. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  39. ———. 2006. Civil war is not a stupid thing: Accounting for violence in developing countries. London: Hurst & Company.Google Scholar
  40. Cryan, Phillip. 2004. The WSJ’s Paranoid Lens on Latin America. Counterpunch. https://www.counterpunch.org/2004/02/24/the-wsj-s-paranoid-lens-on-latin-america/. Accessed 15 Dec 2016.
  41. Di John, Jonathan. 2010. The concept, causes and consequences of failed states: A critical review of the literature and agenda for research with specific reference to sub-Saharan Africa. European Journal of Development Research 22: 10–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Duffield, Mark. 2000. Globalization, transborder trade, and war economies. In Greed and grievance: Economic agendas in civil wars, ed. Mats Berdal and David Malone, 69–89. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  43. ———. 2001. Global governance and the new wars: The merging of development and security. London: Zed.Google Scholar
  44. Dunning, Thad. 2015. Improving process tracing: The case of multi-method research. In Process tracing: From metaphor to analytical tool, ed. Andrew Bennett and Jeffrey T. Checkel, 211–236. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Eck, Kristine. 2012. In data we trust? A comparison of UCDP GED and ACLED conflict events datasets. Cooperation and Conflict 47 (1): 124–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Elbadawi, Ibrahim A., and Håvard Hegre. 2008. Globalization, economic shocks, and internal armed conflict. Defence and Peace Economics 19 (1): 37–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fearon, James D. 2004. Why do some civil wars last so much longer than others? Journal of Peace Research 41 (3): 275–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fearon, James D., and David D. Laitin. 2003a. Ethnicity, insurgency, and civil war. The American Political Science Review 97 (1): 75–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. ———. 2003b. Additional tables for “ethnicity, insurgency, and civil war. Available from http://www.stanford.edu/~jfearon/papers/addtabs.pdf. Accessed 10 Sept 2012.
  50. Foucault, Michel. 2008. The birth of biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978–79. Ed. Michel Senellart. Trans. Graham Burchell. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  51. George, Alexander L., and Andrew Bennet. 2005. Case studies and theory development in the social sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  52. Gerring, John. 2007. Review article: The mechanismic worldview: Thinking inside the box. British Journal of Political Science 38: 161–179.Google Scholar
  53. Glassman, Jim. 2006. Primitive accumulation, accumulation by dispossession, accumulation by extra-economic means. Progress in Human Geography 30 (5): 608–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gleditsch, Nils Petter, Peter Wallensteen, Mikael Eriksson, Margareta Sollenberg, and Håvard Strand. 2002. Armed conflict 1946–2001: A new dataset. Journal of Peace Research 39 (5): 615–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede, Nils W. Metternich, and Andrea Ruggeri. 2014. Data and progress in peace and conflict research. Journal of Peace Research 51 (2): 301–314.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343313496803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Goldberg, Jeffrey. 2010. That Unhinged Mary Anastasia O’Grady Column. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2010/09/that-unhinged-mary-anastasia-ogrady-column/63591/. Accessed 15 Dec 2016.
  57. Greenspan, Alan. 2007. The age of turbulence: Adventures in a new world. New York: The Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  58. Guáqueta, Alexandra. 2003. The Colombian conflict: Political and economic dimensions. In The political economy of armed conflict: Beyond greed and grievance, ed. Karen Ballentine and Jake Sherman, 73–106. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  59. Gurr, Ted R. 1970. Why men rebel. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Gutiérrez Sanín, Francisco. 2009. Stupid and expensive? A critique of the costs-of-violence literature, Crisis states working papers series no.2: Working paper no. 48. Regional and global axes of conflict. London: DESTIN/LSE.Google Scholar
  61. Halvard, Buhaug, and Päivi Lujala. 2005. Accounting for scale: Measuring geography in quantitative studies of civil war. Political Geography 24: 399–418.Google Scholar
  62. Harvey, David. 2003. The new imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. ———. 2005. A brief history of neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Hay, Colin. 2016. Process tracing: A laudable aim or a high-tariff methodology? New Political Economy 21 (5): 500–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hayek, Fredrich A. 1944/2001. The road to serfdom. London: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  66. Hegre, Håvard, Ranveig Gissinger, and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. 2003. Globalization and internal conflict. In Globalization and armed conflict, ed. Gerald Schneider, Katherine Barbieri, and Nils Petter Gleditsch, 251–276. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  67. Hegre, Håvard, Gudrun Østby, and Clionadh Raleigh. 2009. Poverty and civil war events: A disaggregated study of Liberia. Journal of Conflict Resolution 53 (4): 598–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hernes, Gudmund. 1998. Real virtuality. In Social mechanisms an analytical approach to social theory, ed. Peter Hedström and Richard Swedberg, 74–101. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Herring, Eric, and Doug Stokes. 2011. Critical realism and historical materialism as resources for critical terrorism studies. Critical Studies on Terrorism 4 (1): 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Holmes, Jennifer S., Sheila Amin Gutierrez de Pineres, and Kevin M. Curtin. 2008. Drugs, and development in Colombia. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  71. Hough, Phillip A. 2011. Guerrilla insurgency as organized crime: Explaining the so-called “political involution” of the revolutionary armed forces of Colombia. Politics & Society 39 (3): 379–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Howard, David, Mo Hume, and Ulrich Oslender. 2007. Violence, fear, and development in Latin America: A critical overview. Development in Practice 17 (6): 713–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hristov, Jasmin. 2009. Blood & capital: The paramilitarization of Colombia. Toronto: Between the Lines.Google Scholar
  74. ———. 2014. Paramilitarism and neoliberalism : Violent systems of capital accumulation in Colombia and beyond. London: PlutoPress.Google Scholar
  75. Ibáñez, Ana M., and Andrés Moya. 2010. Vulnerability of victims of civil conflicts: Empirical evidence for the displaced population in Colombia. World Development 38 (4): 647–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ibáñez, Ana M., and Andrea Velásquez. 2009. Identifying victims of civil conflicts: An evaluation of forced displaced households in Colombia. Journal of Peace Research 46 (3): 431–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. IDMC (Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre). 2012. Global overview 2011: People internally displaced by conflict and violence. Geneva: IDMC, Norwegian Refugee Council.Google Scholar
  78. ———. 2013. Global overview 2012: People internally displaced by conflict and violence. Geneva: Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre.Google Scholar
  79. Ikenberry, G. John. 2006. Liberal international theory in the wake of 9/11 and American unipolarity. Paper prepared for seminar on IR theory, unipolarity and September 11th—Five years on, NUPI, Oslo, Norway, 3–4, February 2006.Google Scholar
  80. Jackson, Richard. 2014. Critical perspectives. In Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars Routledge, ed. Edward Newman and Karl DeRouen, 79–90. Abingdon/Oxon/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  81. Kaldor, Mary. 1999. New and old wars: Organized violence in a global era. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  82. ———. 2013. In defence of new wars. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development 2 (1): 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kalyvas, Stathis. 2001. “New” and “Old” civil wars: A valid distinction? World Politics 54 (1): 99–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kalyvas, Stathis N. 2006. The logic of violence in civil war. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Keen, David. 2005. Liberalization and conflict. International Political Science Review 26 (1): 73–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Krause, Volker, and Susumu Suzuki. 2005. Causes of civil war in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa: A comparison. Social Science Quarterly 86 (1): 160–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kubo, Keiichi. 2005. Do men rebel because the state is weak?: A critique of the Fearon-Laitin model. The Waseda Journal of Political Science and Economics 359: 93–104.Google Scholar
  88. Lacina, Bethany. 2009. Battle Deaths Dataset 1946–2008: Codebook for Version 3.0. N.P.: CSCW/PRIO.Google Scholar
  89. Lacina, Bethany, and Nils Petter Gleditsch. 2005. Monitoring trends in global combat: A new dataset of battle deaths. European Journal of Population 21 (2–3): 145–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lari, Andrea. 2007. Striving for better days: Improving the lives of internally displaced people in Colombia. Washington, DC: Refugees.Google Scholar
  91. Lyall, Jason. 2015. Process tracing, causal inference, and civil war. In Process tracing: From metaphor to analytical tool, ed. Andrew Bennett and Jeffrey T. Checkel, 186–207. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Maher, David, and Andrew Thomson. 2016. Applying Marxism to critical terrorism studies: Analysis through a historical materialist lens. In Critical methods in terrorism studies, ed. Priya Dixit and Jacob L. Stump, 33–46. Abingdon/Oxon/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  93. Martin, Philippe, Mathias Thoenig, and Thierry Mayer. 2008. Civil wars and international trade. Journal of the European Economic Association 62 (2–3): 541–550.Google Scholar
  94. Marx, Karl. 1867/1990. Capital: A critique of political economy. Trans. Ben Fowkes. Vol. 1. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  95. Melander, Erik, and Ralph Sundberg. 2011. Climate change, environmental stress, and violent conflict—test introducing the UCDP georeferenced event dataset, Paper presented at the International Studies Association, Montreal, Canada, March 16–19.Google Scholar
  96. Mihalache-O’Keef, Andreea, and Tatiana Vashchilko. 2010. Foreign direct investors in conflict zones. In Ending wars, consolidating peace: Economic perspectives (Adelphi series 50), ed. Mats Berdal and Achim Wennman, 137–156. London: Routledge/IISS.Google Scholar
  97. Miller, Morris. 2000. Poverty as cause of wars? Interdisciplinary Science Review 25 (4): 273–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mises, Ludwig von. 1952/2008. Planning for freedom: Let the market system work. Ed. Bettina Bien Greaves. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.Google Scholar
  99. Mittelman, James H. 2001. Mapping globalisation. Journal of Tropical Geography 22 (3): 212–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Nilsson, Manuela, and Laura K. Taylor. 2017. Applying the security-development nexus on the ground: Land restitution in Colombia. Conflict, Security & Development 17 (1): 73–89.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14678802.2016.1231844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. O’Brien, Robert, and Marc Williams. 2013. Global political economy: Evolution and dynamics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. O’Grady, Mary Anastasia. 2004. Cooking the human-rights books in Colombia. Wall Street Journal February 6: A17.Google Scholar
  103. Østby, Gudrun. 2008. Polarization, horizontal inequalities and violent civil conflict. Journal of Peace Research 45 (2): 143–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Østby, Gudrun, Ragnhild Nordås, and Jan Ketil Rød. 2009. Regional inequalities and civil conflict in sub-saharan Africa. International Studies Quarterly 53 (2): 301–324.Google Scholar
  105. Political Instability Task Force (PITF). 2003. Political instability task force report: Phase IV findings. McLean, VA: Science Applications International Corporation.Google Scholar
  106. Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit (PMSU). 2005. Investing in prevention: An international strategy to manage risks of instability and improve crisis response, a strategy unit report to the government. London: Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit, Cabinet Office.Google Scholar
  107. Pugh, Michael, and Neil Cooper. 2004. War economies in a regional context: Challenges of transformation. London: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  108. Raleigh, Clionadh, and Håvard Hegre. 2009. Population size, concentration, and civil war: A geographically disaggregated analysis. Political Geography 28 (4): 224–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Raleigh, Clionadh, Andrew Linke, Håvard Hegre, and Joakim Karlsen. 2010. Introducing ACLED: An armed conflict location and event dataset. Journal of Peace Research 47 (5): 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Read, Jason. 2009. A genealogy of homo-economicus: Neoliberalism and the production of subjectivity. Foucault Studies 6: 25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Richmond, Oliver, and Roger Mac Ginty. 2015. Where now for the critique of the liberal peace? Cooperation and Conflict 50 (2): 171–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rustad, Siri Camilla Aas, Halvard Buhaug, Åshild Falch, and Scott Gates. 2009. Subnational variation in civil conflict risk, Prepared for presentation at the 50th annual convention of the International Studies Association, New York City.Google Scholar
  113. Sambanis, Nicholas. 2004a. What is civil war? Conceptual and empirical complexities of an operational definition. Journal of Conflict Resolution 48 (6): 814–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. ———. 2004b. Using case studies to expand economic models of civil war. Perspectives on Politics 2 (2): 259–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sarkees, Meredith R. 2000. The correlates of war data on war: An update to 1997. Conflict Management and Peace Science 18 (1): 123–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stewart, Frances. 2002. Horizontal inequalities as a source of conflict. In From reaction to conflict prevention: Opportunities for the UN system, ed. Fen Osler Hampson and David Malone, 105–136. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  117. Strange, Susan. 1996. The retreat of the state: The diffusion of power in the world economy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sumner, Andrew. 2005. Is foreign direct investment good for the poor? A review and stocktake. Development in Practice 15 (3/4): 269–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Themnér, Lotta, and Peter Wallensteen. 2012. UCDP/PRIO armed conflict dataset. Journal of Peace Research 49 (4): 565–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Thomson, Frances. 2011. The agrarian question and violence in Colombia: Conflict and development. Journal of Agrarian Change 11 (3): 321–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Trampusch, Christine, and Bruno Palier. 2016. Between X and Y: How process tracing contributes to opening the black box of causality. New Political Economy 21 (5): 437–454.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13563467.2015.1134465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tschirgi, Neclâ, Francesco Mancini, and Michael S. Lund. 2010. The security-development nexus. In Security and development: Searching for critical connections, 1–16. Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  123. Tures, John A. 2003. Economic freedom and conflict reduction: Evidence from the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. Cato Journal 22 (3): 533–542.Google Scholar
  124. van Ingen, Michiel. 2016. Conflict studies and causality: Critical realism and the nomothetic/idiographic divide in the study of civil war. Civil War 8 (4): 387–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Waldner, David. 2015. Process tracing and qualitative causal inference. Security Studies 24 (2): 239–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Williamson, John. 1990. What Washington means by policy reform. Available from http://www.iie.com/publications/papers/paper.cfm?ResearchID=486. Accessed 8 Oct 2010.
  127. ———. 2004. A short history of the Washington consensus. Paper presented at: From the Washington Consensus towards a new Global Governance. Barcelona, 24–25 September 2004. http://www0.gsb.columbia.edu/ipd/pub/williamson.pdf.
  128. World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Report of the World Commission on environment and development: Our common future. n.p.: United Nations. http://www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf. Accessed 13 June 2017.
  129. Yannis, Alexandros. 2003. Kosovo: The political economy of conflict and peacebuilding. In The political economy of armed conflict: Beyond greed and grievance, ed. Karen Ballentine and Jake Sherman, 167–195. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  130. Youngers, Coletta. 2013. Bolivia is not a Narco-state. WOLA. https://www.wola.org/analysis/bolivia-is-not-a-narco-state/. Accessed 15 Dec 2016.
  131. Zarembka, Paul. 2002. Primitive accumulation in Marxism, Historical or trans-historical separation from means of production? The Commoner. http://www.thecommoner.org

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Maher
    • 1
  1. 1.Lecturer in International RelationsUniversity of SalfordSalfordUK

Personalised recommendations