Carbon pp 139-173 | Cite as

Coal, the Black Carbon

  • Tapan Gupta


The first thing that we could think of about black carbon is coal. Coals are complex heterogeneous solids that consist of a large polymeric matrix of aromatic structures commonly called the coal macromolecules. These macromolecules may vary widely in their chemical and physical properties [1]. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen [2]. Indeed, coal (from old English term Col, meaning mineral of fossilized carbon) contains mainly carbon, the conversion of dead vegetation called carbonization [3]. Archeological evidence in China indicates surface mining of coal and household usage after approximately 3490 BC [4].


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tapan Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.La MesaUSA

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