Diagnosis of Endophthalmitis: Clinical Presentation, Microbiology, and Echography
The diagnosis of endophthalmitis can be made based on clinical examination findings. The patient may present with gradual or sudden onset of symptoms including lid swelling, pain, redness, discharge, and decrease in the vision. Slit-lamp examination may show lid swelling, conjunctival congestion, chemosis, glaucoma implant exposure, corneal edema, epithelial defect, corneal infiltrate, hypopyon, infiltrates/fibrin membrane in the anterior chamber, plaque inside the capsular bag, loss of fundus red reflex, or infiltrates in the vitreous cavity (Figs. 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3).