Advertisement

Suicide Among Eastern European Immigrant Youth

  • Aida Spahic-Mihajlovic
  • Alekhya Buddhavarapu
  • Neha SharmaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Suicidality in Eastern European immigrant youth is a vastly under-researched topic. The socioeconomic climate of the region has been in a state of constant flux in the last few decades with wars, atrocities, and mass migration. Children who were born in this region have a high risk of being exposed to psychosocial adversity and trauma, which can be directly responsible for the manifesting of self-harming behaviors. Major risk factors for suicide could build on one another quickly and unexpectedly in this vulnerable group. It is important to have a thorough understanding of the sociopolitical background of each client from this multiethnic area. This helps mental health (MH) providers have cultural knowledge specific to the population that informs them of risk factors, strengths, early symptom manifestations, and modalities of depression and suicide. Available information and data regarding the MH and acculturation experiences of this community from the home region and host countries in the European Union can enable US MH services to design interventions and protocols suiting the needs of these immigrants.

Keywords

Eastern European youth Suicide Treatment Depression Immigration 

References

  1. 1.
    Kramer M. The demise of the Soviet Bloc. J Mod Hist. 2011;83(4):788–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kramer M. The collapse of east European communism and the repercussions within the Soviet Union (part 3). J Cold War Stud. 2005;7(1):3–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carrere D’Encausse H. The end of the Soviet Empire: the triumph of the nations (English – translated by Franklin Philip ed.). New York: New Republic (Basic Books) division of HarperCollins. 1993; p. 16. ISBN 0-465-09812-6.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Van Elsuwege P. From Soviet Republics to EU member states: a legal and political assessment of the Baltic states’ accession to the EU. In: Studies in EU external relations. 2008; 1. BRILL. p. xxii. ISBN 978–90–04-16945-6.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    O’Clery C. Moscow December 25, 1991: the last day of the Soviet Union. Dublin: Transworld Ireland; 2011.; ISBN 978-1-84827-112-8,. p. 71.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Over Half of Russians Regret Loss of Soviet Union. Sputnik news. https://sputniknews.com/russia/20140115186524071-Over-Half-of-Russians-Regret-Loss-of-Soviet-Union/. 2014.
  7. 7.
    Wolchik SL, Curry JL. Central and East European politics: from communism to democracy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield; 2007. p. 238. ISBN 0-7425-4068-5Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Scasz PC. The protection of human rights through the Dayton/Paris peace agreement on Bosnia. Am J Int Law. 1996;90(2):301–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Akhavan P. The Yuguslav Tribunal at a crossroads: the Dayton peace agreement and beyond. Hum Rights Q. 1996;18(2):259–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Franz B. Fem Rev. 2003;73:73–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burg SL, Shoup PS. Ethnic conflict and international intervention: crisis in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1990–93: crisis in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1990–93. Taylor & Francis; 2015. p. 222. ISBN 978-1-317-47101-1.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Becker DF, Weine SM, Vojvoda D, McGlashan TH. PTSD symptoms in adolescent survivors of “ethnic cleansing”: results from a one-year follow-up study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999;38(6):775–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Weine SM, Becker DF, McGlashan TH, Laub D. Psychiatric consequences of “ethnic cleansing”: clinical assessments and trauma testimonies of newly resettled Bosnian refugees. Am J Psychiatry (Washington). 1995;152(4):536–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Calic MJ. Ethnic cleansing and war crimes, 1991–1995. In: Ingrao CW, Emmert TA, editors. Confronting the Yugoslav controversies: a scholars’ initiative. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press; 2012. p. 139–40. ISBN 978-1-55753-617-4.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bellis MA, Hughes K, Leckenby N, Jones L, et al. Adverse childhood experiences and associations with health-harming behaviours in young adults: surveys in eight eastern European countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2014;92:641–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Werge F. Child poverty soars in Eastern Europe. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/966616.stm. 2000.
  17. 17.
    International Monetary Fund. World economic outlook, October 2010: recovery, risk and rebalancing. 2010.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Amri S, Bemak F. Mental health help-seeking behaviors of Muslim immigrants in the United States: overcoming social stigma and cultural mistrust. J Muslim Mental Health. 2013;7(1)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pescosolido BA, Olafsdottir S, Martin JK, Long JS. Cross-cultural aspects of the stigma of mental illness. Understanding the stigma of mental illness: theory and interventions. Hoboken: Wiley; 2008. p. 19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pray L, Cohen C, Maekinen IH, Vaernik A, MacKellar FL. Suicide in Eastern Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and the Baltic Countries: social and public health determinants, IIASA Research Report. Laxenburg: IIASA; 2013. RR-13-001Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wasserman D, Cheng Q, Jiang GX. Global suicide rates among young people aged 15–19. World Psychiatry. 2005;4:114–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fajkic A, Lepara O, Voracek M, et al. Child and adolescent suicides in Bosnia and Herzegovina before and after the war (1992–1995). Crisis. 2010;31(3):160–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ajdacic-Gross V, Weiss MG, Ring M, Hepp U, Bopp M, Gutzwiller F, Rössler W. Methods of suicide: international suicide patterns derived from the WHO mortality database. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86(9):726–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bursztein Lipsicas C, Mäkinen IH, Wasserman D, et al. Repetition of attempted suicide among immigrants in Europe. Can J Psychiatr. 2014;59(10):539–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Angel B, Hjern A, Ingleby D. Effects of war and organized violence on children: a study of Bosnian refugees in Sweden. Am J Orthop. 2001;71(1):4–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hawton K, Rodham K, Evans E, Weatherall R. Deliberate self harm in adolescents: self report survey in schools in England. BMJ. 2002;325(7374):1207–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aida Spahic-Mihajlovic
    • 1
  • Alekhya Buddhavarapu
    • 2
  • Neha Sharma
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of IllinoisChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryTufts Medical CenterBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryTufts University School of Medicine, Tufts Medical CenterBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations