IJIT: An API for Boolean Program Analysis with Just-in-Time Translation

  • Peizun LiuEmail author
  • Thomas Wahl
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10469)


Exploration algorithms for explicit-state transition systems are a core back-end technology in program verification. They can be applied to programs by generating the transition system on the fly, avoiding an expensive up-front translation. An on-the-fly strategy requires significant modifications to the implementation, into a form that stores states directly as valuations of program variables. Performed manually on a per-algorithm basis, such modifications are laborious and error-prone.

In this paper we present the Ijit Application Programming Interface (API), which allows users to automatically transform a given transition system exploration algorithm to one that operates on Boolean programs. The API converts system states temporarily to program states just in time for expansion via image computations, forward or backward. Using our API, we have effortlessly extended various non-trivial (e.g. infinite-state) model checking algorithms to operate on multi-threaded Boolean programs. We demonstrate the ease of use of the API, and present a case study on the impact of the just-in-time translation on these algorithms.


  1. 1.
    Abdulla, P.A.: Well (and better) quasi-ordered transition systems. Bull. Symbolic Logic 16(4), 457–515 (2010)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abdulla, P.A., Cerans, K., Jonsson, B., Tsay, Y.K.: General decidability theorems for infinite-state systems. In: LICS, pp. 313–321 (1996)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alur, R., Benedikt, M., Etessami, K., Godefroid, P., Reps, T., Yannakakis, M.: Analysis of recursive state machines. ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst. 27(4), 786–818 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ball, T., Rajamani, S.: Boolean programs: a model and process for software analysis. Technical report MSR-TR-2000-14, Microsoft Research (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ball, T., Rajamani, S.K.: Bebop: a symbolic model checker for boolean programs. In: Havelund, K., Penix, J., Visser, W. (eds.) SPIN 2000. LNCS, vol. 1885, pp. 113–130. Springer, Heidelberg (2000). doi: 10.1007/10722468_7CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ball, T., Rajamani, S.K.: The SLAM project: debugging system software via static analysis. In: POPL, pp. 1–3 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Basler, G., Hague, M., Kroening, D., Ong, C.-H.L., Wahl, T., Zhao, H.: Boom: taking boolean program model checking one step further. In: Esparza, J., Majumdar, R. (eds.) TACAS 2010. LNCS, vol. 6015, pp. 145–149. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-12002-2_11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Clarke, E., Kroening, D., Sharygina, N., Yorav, K.: SATABS: SAT-based predicate abstraction for ANSI-C. In: Halbwachs, N., Zuck, L.D. (eds.) TACAS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3440, pp. 570–574. Springer, Heidelberg (2005). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-31980-1_40CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cook, B., Kroening, D., Sharygina, N.: Symbolic model checking for asynchronous boolean programs. In: Godefroid, P. (ed.) SPIN 2005. LNCS, vol. 3639, pp. 75–90. Springer, Heidelberg (2005). doi: 10.1007/11537328_9CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Delzanno, G., Raskin, J.-F., Begin, L.: Towards the automated verification of multithreaded Java programs. In: Katoen, J.-P., Stevens, P. (eds.) TACAS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2280, pp. 173–187. Springer, Heidelberg (2002). doi: 10.1007/3-540-46002-0_13CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Esparza, J., Hansel, D., Rossmanith, P., Schwoon, S.: Efficient algorithms for model checking pushdown systems. In: Emerson, E.A., Sistla, A.P. (eds.) CAV 2000. LNCS, vol. 1855, pp. 232–247. Springer, Heidelberg (2000). doi: 10.1007/10722167_20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Esparza, J., Schwoon, S.: A BDD-based model checker for recursive programs. In: Berry, G., Comon, H., Finkel, A. (eds.) CAV 2001. LNCS, vol. 2102, pp. 324–336. Springer, Heidelberg (2001). doi: 10.1007/3-540-44585-4_30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Graf, S., Saidi, H.: Construction of abstract state graphs with PVS. In: Grumberg, O. (ed.) CAV 1997. LNCS, vol. 1254, pp. 72–83. Springer, Heidelberg (1997). doi: 10.1007/3-540-63166-6_10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Holzmann, G.J.: The model checker Spin. IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng. 23(5), 279–295 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kaiser, A., Kroening, D., Wahl, T.: Dynamic cutoff detection in parameterized concurrent programs. In: Touili, T., Cook, B., Jackson, P. (eds.) CAV 2010. LNCS, vol. 6174, pp. 645–659. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-14295-6_55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Karp, R.M., Miller, R.E.: Parallel program schemata. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 3(2), 147–195 (1969)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    La Torre, S., Parthasarathy, M., Parlato, G.: Analyzing recursive programs using a fixed-point calculus. In: PLDI, pp. 211–222 (2009)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
    Liu, P., Wahl, T.: Infinite-state backward exploration of Boolean broadcast programs. In: FMCAD, pp. 155–162 (2014)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liu, P., Wahl, T.: IJIT: an API for Boolean program analysis with just-in-time translation (extended technical report) (2017). CoRR Scholar
  21. 21.
    Visser, W., Havelund, K., Brat, G., Park, S., Lerda, F.: Model checking programs. Autom. Softw. Eng. 10(2), 203–232 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northeastern UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations