Advertisement

From Presence to Multipresence: Mobile Knowledge Workers’ Densified Hours

  • Johanna Koroma
  • Matti Vartiainen
Chapter
Part of the Dynamics of Virtual Work book series (DVW)

Abstract

Mobile information and communication technologies enable knowledge workers to be available 24/7 irrespective of boundaries or locations. Technology-enabled ‘multipresence’ allows workers to be simultaneously present in physical, virtual, and social spaces while working across boundaries in multiple locations and on the move. Drawing from sociomateriality and social presence theory, this chapter argues that a ‘multipresence’ strategy is selected because of ubiquitous availability expectations, the sheer volume of received emails, their potential urgency, and the pursuit of the feeling of being in control of work. The experienced benefits of multipresence include the efficient use of time and flexibility of work, whereas the perceived costs include concentration difficulties, stress, work–life balance management challenges, and decreases in productivity.

References

  1. Allen, D. K., & Shoard, M. (2005). Spreading the load: Mobile information and communications technologies and their effect on information overload. Information Research, 10(2). Retrieved July 2014, from http://www.informationr.net/ir/10-2/paper227.html
  2. Barley, S. R., Meyerson, D. E., & Grodal, S. (2011). E-mail as a source and symbol of stress. Organization Science, 22(4), 887–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bellotti, V., Cuchenaut, N., Howard, M., & Smith, I. (2003). Taking email to task: The design and evaluation of a task management centered email tool. In CHI ’03 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 345–352). New York: ACM.Google Scholar
  4. Bellotti, V., Cuchenaut, N., Howard, M., Smith, I., & Grinter, R. E. (2005). Quality versus Quantity: E-mail-centric task management and its relation with overload. Human–Computer Interaction, 20(1), 89–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biocca, F. (1997). The cyborg’s dilemma: Progressive embodiment in virtual environments. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 3(2). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.1997.tb00070.x
  6. Biocca, F., Harms, C., & Burgoon, J. K. (2004). Toward a more robust theory and measure of social presence: Review and suggested criteria. Presence, 12(5), 456–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Breure, A., & Van Meel, J. (2003). Airport offices: Facilitating nomadic workers. Facilities, 21(7/8), 175–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, B., & O’Hara, K. (2003). Place as a practical concern of mobile workers. Environment and Planning A, 35(9), 1565–1587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cousins, K. C., & Robey, D. (2005). Human agency in a wireless world: Patterns of technology use in nomadic computing environments. Information and Organization, 15(2), 151–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Daly, K. J. (1996). Families & time: Keeping pace in a hurried culture. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fenner, G. H., & Renn, R. W. (2004). Technology-assisted supplemental work: Construct definition and a research framework. Human Resource Management, 43(2 & 3), 179–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fenner, G. H., & Renn, R. W. (2010). Technology-assisted supplemental work and work-to-family conflict: The role of instrumentality beliefs, organizational expectations and time management. Human Relations, 63(1), 63–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Forlano, L. (2008). Working on the move. The social and digital ecologies of mobile workplaces. In D. Hislop (Ed.), Mobility and technology in the workplace (pp. 28–42). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gareis, K., Lilischkis, S., & Mentrup, A. (2006). Mapping the mobile e workforce in Europe. In J. H. E. Andriessen & M. Vartiainen (Eds.), Mobile virtual work. A new paradigm? (pp. 45–69). Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gibson, C. B., & Gibbs, J. L. (2006). Unpacking the concept of virtuality: The effects of geographic dispersion, electronic dependence, dynamic structure, and national diversity on team innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51(3), 451–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Golden, A. G. (2009). A technologically gendered paradox of efficiency. Caring more about work while working in more care. In S. Kleinman (Ed.), The culture of efficiency. Technology in everyday life (pp. 339–354). New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  17. Gonzalez, V. M., & Mark, G. (2004). ‘Constant, constant multitasking craziness’: Managing multiple working spheres. In CHI ’03 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 113–120). New York: ACM.Google Scholar
  18. Herbsleb, J. D., & Mockus, A. (2003). Formulation and preliminary test of an empirical theory of coordination in software engineering. In ESEF/FSE’03 (pp. 138–147). New York: ACM.Google Scholar
  19. Herbsleb, J. D., Mockus, A., Finholt, T. A., & Grinter, R. E. (2000). Distance, dependencies, and delay in global collaboration. In Proceedings of the ACM Conference of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 2000 (pp. 319–328). New York: ACM.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hill, E. J., Hawkins, A. J., Ferris, M., & Weitzman, M. (2001). Finding an extra day a week: The positive influence of perceived job flexibility on work and family life balance. Family Relations, 50(1), 49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hinds, P. J., & Bailey, D. E. (2003). Out of sight, out of sync: Understanding conflict on distributed teams. Organization Science, 14(6), 615–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hyrkkänen, U., & Vartiainen, M. (2005). Mobiili työ ja hyvinvointi [Mobile work and wellbeing] (Vol. 293). Helsinki: Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment.Google Scholar
  23. Ijsselsteijn, W. A., & Riva, G. (2003). Being there: The experience of presence in mediated environments. In G. Riva, F. Davide, & W. A. Ijsselsteijn (Eds.), Being there: Concepts, effects and measurement of user presence in synthetic environments (pp. 4–15). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press.Google Scholar
  24. Jackson, M. (2002). What’s happening to home? Balancing work, life, and refuge in the information age. Notre Dame: Sorin Books.Google Scholar
  25. Jackson, M. (2008). Distracted: The erosion of attention and the coming dark age. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  26. Jackson, T. W., Dawson, R., & Wilson, D. (1999). Improving the communications process: The costs and effectiveness of email compared with traditional media. In C. Hawkins, E. Georgiadou, L. Perivolaropoulos, M. Ross, & G. Staples (Eds.), Fourth International Conference on Software Process Improvement Research, Education and Training. British Computer Society, INSPIRE’99 (pp. 167–178). Crete: British Computer Society.Google Scholar
  27. Jackson, T. W., Dawson, R., & Wilson, D. (2001). The cost of email interruption. Journal of Systems Information Technology, 5(1), 81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jackson, T. W., Dawson, R., & Wilson, D. (2003). Reducing the effect of email interruptions on employees. International Journal of Information Management, 23(1), 55–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Just, M. A., Keller, T. A., & Cynkar, J. (2008). A decrease in brain activation associated with driving when listening to someone speak. Brain Research, 1205, 70–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2007.12.075 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Koroma, J., Hyrkkänen, U., & Vartiainen, M. (2014). Looking for people, places and connections: Hindrances when working in multiple locations—A review. New Technology, Work and Employment, 29(2), 139–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Manger, T., Wiklund, R. A., & Eikeland, O. J. (2003). Speed communication and solving social problems. Communications, 28(3), 323–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mark, G., Gonzalez, V. M., & Harris, G. (2005). No task left behind? Examining the nature of fragmented work. In Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 (pp. 321–330). Portland, OR: ACM Press.Google Scholar
  34. Mazmanian, M. A., Orlikowski, W. J., & Yates, J. (2005). Crackberries: The social implications of ubiquitous wireless email services. In C. Soerensen, Y. Yoo, K. Lyytinen, & J. I. DeGross (Eds.), Designing ubiquitous information environments: Socio-technical issues and challenges, IFIP—The International Federation for Information Processing (Vol. 185, pp. 337–343). Boston, MA: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mazmanian, M. A., Orlikowski, W. J., & Yates, J. (2013). The autonomy paradox: The implications of mobile email devices for knowledge professionals. Organization Science, 24(5), 1337–1357. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1120.0806 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Middleton, C. A., & Cukier, W. (2006). Is mobile email functional or dysfunctional? Two perspective on mobile email usage. European Journal of Information Systems, 15(3), 252–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morgeson, F. P., Mitchell, T. R., & Liu, D. (2015). Event system theory: An event-oriented approach to the organizational sciences. Academy of Management Review, 40(4), 515–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Murray, W. C., & Rostis, A. (2007). Who’s running the machine? A theoretical exploration of work, stress and burnout of technologically tethered workers. Journal of Individual Employment Rights, 12(3), 249–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Oldenburg, R. (1989). The character of third places. In R. Oldenburg (Ed.), The great good place (pp. 20–42). New York: Marlowe.Google Scholar
  40. Orlikowski, W. J. (2000). Using technology and constituting structures: A practice lens for studying technology in organizations. Organization Science, 11(4), 404–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Orlikowski, W. J. (2007). Sociomaterial practices: Exploring technology at work. Organization Studies, 28(9), 1435–1448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Orlikowski, W. J. (2009). The sociomateriality of organizational life: Considering technology in management research. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 1(17). https://doi.org/10.1093/cje/bep058
  43. Perlow, L. A. (2012). Sleeping with your smart phone: How to break the 24/7 habit and change the way you work. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.Google Scholar
  44. Perry, M., O’Hara, K., Sellen, A., Brown, B., & Harper, R. (2001). Dealing with mobility: Understanding access anytime, anywhere. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 8(4), 323–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Renaud, K., Ramsay, J., & Hair, M. (2006). ‘You’ve got mail!’ … Shall I deal with it now? Electronic mail from the recipient’s perspective. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 21(3), 313–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rice, R. E. (1993). Media appropriateness: Using social presence theory to compare traditional and new organizational media. Human Communication Research, 19(4), 451–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ruppel, C. P., Gong, B., & Tworoger, L. C. (2013). Using communication choices as boundary-management strategy: How choices of communication media affect the work–life balance of teleworkers in a global virtual team. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 27(4), 436–471. https://doi.org/10.1177/1050651913490941 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Short, J. A., Williams, E., & Christie, B. (1976). The social psychology of telecommunications. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  49. Sivunen, A. (2015). Presence and absence in global virtual team meetings: Physical, virtual and social dimensions. In J. Webster & K. Randle (Eds.), Virtual workers and the global labour market (pp. 199–217). London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  50. Sivunen, A., & Nordbäck, E. (2015). Social presence as a multi-dimensional group construct in 3D virtual environments. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 20(1), 19–36. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sproull, L., & Kiesler, S. (1991a). A two-level perspective on technology. In L. Sproull & S. Kiesler (Eds.), Connections: New ways of working in networked organization (pp. 1–18). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  52. Sproull, L., & Kiesler, S. (1991b). Beyond efficiency. In L. Sproull & S. Kiesler (Eds.), Connections: New ways of working in networked organization (pp. 19–36). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  53. Steinfield, C. W. (1986). Computer mediated communication in an organizational setting: Explaining task-related and socio economic uses. In M. L. McLaughlin (Ed.), Communication yearbook 9 (pp. 777–804). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  54. Thomas, G. F., King, C. L., Baroni, B., Cook, L., Keitelman, M., Miller, S., et al. (2006). Conceptualizing e-mail overload. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 20(3), 252–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johanna Koroma
    • 1
  • Matti Vartiainen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Industrial Engineering and ManagementAalto University School of ScienceAalto UniversityFinland

Personalised recommendations