The Tributary System and the ‘Century of Humiliation’

  • Lukas K. Danner


This chapter goes into the historical background to China’s grand strategy and political culture. The focus is, on the one hand, the tributary system with which international relations were conducted during imperial times, and, on the other hand, the ‘Century of Humiliation,’ which occurred between 1839 and 1945 and was defined by the so-called unequal treaties between an internally weakened China and the West and Japan.


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© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lukas K. Danner
    • 1
  1. 1.Florida International UniversityMiamiUSA

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