Influence of Nanoclay/Phenol Formaldehyde Resin on Wood Polymer Nanocomposites

  • M. R. RahmanEmail author
Part of the Engineering Materials book series (ENG.MAT.)


In this study, the introduction of nanofiller into phenol formaldehyde matrix formed wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNCs). FT-IR results showed that the addition of nanoclay into phenol formaldehyde (PF) formed H-bonding interaction with hydroxyl groups by reducing the wave number of the peak. The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) results showed that WPNCs were thermally stable compared to the raw ones. The MOE and MOR of WPNCs were significantly improved for Eugenia spp., Xylopia spp., Artocarpus Rigidus, and Artocarpus Elasticus respectively. The Young’s modulus of WPNCs on Eugenia spp. was significantly higher compared to raw wood. From X-ray diffraction results, WPNCs showed improved crystallinity at the amorphous region due to the polymer loading. SEM micrograph of WPNCs showed that void space was filled with the polymer, and the waxy substance was removed. All the nanofiller/phenol formaldehyde was significantly effective on Eugenia spp. followed by Xylopia spp., Artocarpus Rigidus, and Artocarpus Elasticus wood species, respectively.


Mechanical properties Thermal stability Chemical treatment WPNCs 



The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, for their financial support [Grant no. ERGS/02 (08)/860/2912(12)] during the research.


  1. Adebhar T, Roscher C, Adam J (2001) Reinforcing nanoparticles in reactive resins. Eur Coat J 4:144Google Scholar
  2. Cai XB, Riedl SY, Zhang Wan H (2007) Formation and properties of nanocomposites made up from solid aspen wood, melamine-urea-formaldehyde, and clay. Holz 61:148–154Google Scholar
  3. Cai X, Riedl B, Zhang SY, Wan H (2008) The impact of the nature of nanofillers on the performance of wood polymer nanocomposites. Compos Part A 39:727–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Choi YK, Sugimoto KI, Song SM, Gotoh Y, Ohkoshi Y, Endo M (2005) Mechanical and physical properties of epoxy composites reinforced by vapor grown carbon nanofibers. Carbon 43:208–2199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Haggenmueller R, Du F, Fischer JE, Winey KI (2006) Interfacial in situ polymerization of single wall carbon nanotube/nylon 66 nanocomposites. Polym 47:2381–2388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hamdan S, Talib ZA, Rahman MR, Ahmed AS, Islam MS (2010) Dynamic Young’s modulus measurement of treated and post-treated tropical wood polymer composites (WPC). BioRes 5(1):324–342Google Scholar
  7. Kinloch AJ, Lee JH, Taylor AC, Sprenger S, Eger C, Egan D (2003) Toughening structural adhesives via nano- and micro-phase inclusions. J Adhes 79:73–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mulinari DR, Voorwald HJC, Cioffi MOH, Rocha GJ, Pinto Da Silva MLC (2010) Surface modification of sugarcane bagasse cellulose and its effect on mechanical and water absorption properties of sugarcane bagasse cellulose/HDPE composites. BioRes 5(2):661–671Google Scholar
  9. Owen NL, Thomas DW (1989) Infrared studies of hard and soft woods. Appl Spec 43:451–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Rahman MR, Hamdan S, Saleh AA, Islam MS (2010) Mechanical and biological performance of sodium mataperiodate impregnated plasticized wood (PW). BioRes 5(2):1022–1035Google Scholar
  11. Rodgers RM, Mahfuz H, Rangari VK, Chisholm N, Jeelani S (2005) Infusion of SiC nanoparticles into SC-15 epoxy: an investigation of thermal and mechanical response. Macromol Mater Eng 290:423–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Shah RK, Paul DR (2004) Nylon 6 nanocomposites prepared by a melt mixing masterbatch process. Polym 45:2991–3000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Uddin M, Sun CT (2008) Strength of unidirectional glass/epoxy composite with silica nanoparticle-enhanced matrix. Compos Sci Technol 68:1637–1643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Varhegyi G, Antal MJJ, Jakab E (1997) Kinetics modeling of biomass pyrolysis. J Anal Appl Pyrol 42:73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wu CL, Li XP, Qing SL (2004) Cellulose solvent: current research status and its application prospect. Trans China Pulp Paper 19(2):171–175Google Scholar
  16. Yasmin A, Abot JL, Daniel IM (2003) Processing of clay/epoxy nanocomposites by shear mixing. Scripta Mater 49:6–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Zheng H, Ning R, Zheng Y (2005) Study of SiO2 nanoparticles on the improved performance of epoxy and fiber composites. J Reinf Plastic Compos 24:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Zilg C, Mulhaupt R, Finter J (1999) Morphology and toughness/stiffness balance of nanocomposites based upon anhydride-cured epoxy resins and layered silicates. Macromol Chem Phys 200:661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zilg C, Thomman T, Finter J, Mulhaupt R (2000) The influence of silicate modification and compatibilizers on mechanical properties and morphology of anhydridecured epoxy nanocomposites. Macromol Mater Eng 280:41CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia SarawakKota SamarahanMalaysia

Personalised recommendations