From the present work, the fabrication of epoxy/MMT wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNCs) was investigated. From FT-IR characterization, it confirmed the C–O stretch of C–O–H in starch at 1232 and 1182 cm−1 as well as the C–O stretch of C–O–C in starch at 1029 cm−1 with the decreasing wave number. This proved that raw wood was well impregnated by epoxy/MMT. In addition, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) proved that WPNCs were more thermally stable over temperature compared to raw wood due to the high impact of montmorillonite (MMT) on wood. The stiffness, modulus of elasticity (MOE), and modulus of rupture (MOR) were significantly increased on WPNCs of Eugenia spp., Xylopia spp., Artocarpus Rigidus, and Artocarpus Elasticus compared with raw wood. From X-ray diffraction patterns, the addition of epoxy/MMT improved the crystallinity of WPNCs at the amorphous region. SEM analysis showed that the void space in raw wood was fully filled with epoxy/MMT, and the waxy substances were removed. It could be concluded that epoxy/MMT was significantly effective on Eugenia spp., followed by Xylopia spp., Artocarpus Rigidus, and Artocarpus Elasticus, respectively.
Mechanical properties XRD SEM Wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNCs)
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, for their financial support.
Alexandre M, Dubois P (2000) Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: preparation, properties and uses of a new class of materials. Mater Sci Eng 28:1–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Basara C, Yilmazer U, Bayram G (2005) Synthesis and characterization of epoxy based nanocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci 98:1081–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker O, Varley R, Simona G (2002) Morphology, thermal relaxations and mechanical properties of layered silicate nanocomposites based upon high-functionality epoxy resins. Polym 43:4365–4373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cai XB, Riedl SY, Zhang Wan H (2007) Formation and properties of nanocomposites made up from solid aspen wood, melamine-urea-formaldehyde, and clay. Holz 61:148–154Google Scholar
Cai X, Riedl B, Zhang SY, Wan H (2008) The impact of the nature of nanofillers on the performance of wood polymer nanocomposites. Compos Part A 39:727–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen KH, Yang SM (2002) Synthesis of epoxy–montmorillonite nanocomposite. J Appl Polym Sci 86:414–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen B, Liu J, Chen H, Wu JS (2004) Synthesis of disordered and highly exfoliated epoxy/clay nanocomposites using organoclay with catalytic function via acetone-clay slurry method. Chem Mater 16:4864–4866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans D, Canfer SJ (2000) Radiation stable, low viscosity impregnating resin systems for cryogenic applications. Adv Cryo Eng Mater 46:361–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamdan S, Talib ZA, Rahman MR, Ahmed AS, Islam MS (2010) Dynamic Young’s modulus measurement of treated and post-treated tropical wood polymer composites (WPC). BioRes 5(1):324–342Google Scholar
Kong D, Park CE (2003) Real time exfoliation behavior of clay layers in epoxy-clay nanocomposites. Chem Mater 15:419–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lam CK, Cheung HY, Lau KT (2005) Cluster size effect in hardness of nanoclay/epoxy composites. Compos Part B 36:263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lebaron PC, Wang Z, Pinnavaia TJ (1999) Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: an overview. Appl Clay Sci 15:11–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mulinari DR, Voorwald HJC, Cioffi MOH, Rocha GJ, Pinto Da Silva MLC (2010) Surface modification of sugarcane bagasse cellulose and its effect on mechanical and water absorption properties of sugarcane bagasse cellulose/HDPE composites. BioRes 5(2):661–671Google Scholar
Nigam V, Setua DK, Mathur GN (2004) Epoxy–montmorillonite clay nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization. J Appl Polym Sci 93:2201–2210CrossRefGoogle Scholar