Acrylonitrile/Butyl Methacrylate/Halloysite Nanoclay Impregnated Sindora Wood Polymer Nanocomposites (WPNCs): Physico-mechanical, Morphological and Thermal Properties

  • M. R. RahmanEmail author
  • J. C. H. Lai
  • S. Hamdan
Part of the Engineering Materials book series (ENG.MAT.)


In this study, physical, morphological, mechanical, and thermal properties of acrylonitrile/butyl methacrylate/halloysite nanoclay wood polymer nanocomposites (AN-co-BMA-HNC WPNCs) were investigated. AN-co-BMA-HNC WPNCs were prepared via impregnation method, and the effect of different ratio between the polymers was subsequently investigated. The properties of nanocomposites were characterized through weight percent gain, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), three-point flexural test, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and moisture absorption test. The weight percent gain in 50:50 AN-co-BMA-HNC WPNCs was the highest compared to raw wood (RW) and other WPNCs. FT-IR results confirmed the polymerization took place in the nanocomposites, especially 50:50 AN-co-BMA-HNC WPNCs with reducing hydroxyl groups. SEM result revealed that the 50:50 AN-co-BMA-HNC WPNCs showed the best surface morphology among all the samples. Through three-point flexural test, 50:50 AN-co-BMA-HNC WPNCs showed the highest flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. The results revealed that the storage modulus and loss modulus of AN-co-BMA-HNC WPNCs were higher while the tan δ of AN-co-BMA-HNC WPNCs was lower compared to RW. AN-co-BMA-HNC WPNCs exhibited the higher thermal stability through TGA and DSC analysis. 50:50 AN-co-BMA-HNC WPNCs exhibited significantly lower moisture absorption compared to RW. Overall, this study proved that the ratio 50:50 AN-co-BMA was the most suitable to be introduced in the RW.


Morphology Strength Thermal Clay 



The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Research and Innovation Management Centre, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak under Fund with Grant no. (F02/SpGS/1443/2016/25) during the research.


  1. Abdul Khalil HPS, Jawaid M, Firoozian P, Alothman OY, Paridah MT, Zainudin ES (2014) Flexural properties of activated carbon filled epoxy nanocomposites. Malays J Anal Sci 18(2):391–397Google Scholar
  2. Akita K, Kase M (1967) Determination of kinetic parameters for pyrolysis of cellulose and cellulose treated with ammonium phosphate by differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis. J Polym Sci 5:833–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashori A (2008) Wood–plastic composites as promising green-composites for automotive industries. Biores Technol 99:4661–4667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bahrami SH, Bajaj P, Sen K (2003) Thermal behaviour of acrylonitrile carboxylic acid copolymers. J Appl Polym Sci 88:685–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bao YZ, Zhao WT, Huang ZM (2013) Preparation of mesoporous carbons from ac rylonitrile-methyl methacrylate copolymer/silica nanocomposites synthesized by in-situ emulsion polymerization. Chin J Chem Eng 21(6):691–697 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benlikaya R, Alkan M, Kaya I (2009) Preparation and characterization of sepiolite poly(ethyl methacrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) nanocomposites. Polym Comp 30:1585–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bodirlau R, Teaca CA, Spiridon I (2009) Preparation and characterization of composites comprising modified hardwood and wood poly mers/poly(vinyl chloride). BioRes 4(4):1285–1304Google Scholar
  8. Chanmal CV, Jog JP (2008) Dielectric relaxations in PVDF/BaTiO3 nanocomposites. eXPRESS Polym Lett 2(4):294–301Google Scholar
  9. Gupta AK, Paliwal DK, Bajaj P (1995) Effect of an acidic comonomer on thermooxidative stabilization of polyacrylonitrile. J Appl Polym Sci 58:1161–1174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hamdan S, Rahman MR, Ahmed AS, Talib ZA, Islam MS (2010) Influence of N, N-dimethylacetamid on the thermal and mechanical properties of polymer-filled wood. BioRes 5(4):2611–2624Google Scholar
  11. Han N, Zhang XX, Wang XC (2010) Various conomoners in acrylonitrile based copolymers: effects on thermal behaviour. Iran Polym J 19(4):243–253Google Scholar
  12. Hazarika A, Maji TK (2014) Modification of softwood by monomers and nanofillers. Defence Sci J 64(3):262–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Herrera-Alonso JM, Sedlakova Z, Marand E (2010) Gas barrier properties of nanocomposites based on in situ polymerized poly(n-butyl methacrylate) in the presence of surface modified montmorillonite. J Memb Sci 349(1–2):251–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kallakas H, Shamim MA, Olutubo T, Poltimae T, Suld TM, Krumme A, Kers S (2015) Effect of chemical modification of wood flour on the mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites. Argo Res 13(3):639–653Google Scholar
  15. Kobayashi M, Rharbi Y, Brauge L, Cao L, Winnik MA (2002) Effect of silica as fillers on polymer interdiffusion in poly(butyl methacrylate) latex films. Macromol 35(19):7387–7399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kuan HC, Ma CCM, Chen KH, Chen SM (2004) Preparation, electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of composite bipolar plate for a fuel cell. J Power Source 134(1):7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li YF, Liu YX, Wong XM, Wu QL, Yu HP, Li J (2011) Wood-polymer com posites prepared by in situ polymerization of monomers within wood. J Appl Polym Sci 119(6):3207–3216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Malakani M, Bazyar B, Talaiepour M, Hemmasi AH, Ghasemi I (2015) Effect of acetylation of wood flour and MAPP content during compounding on physical properties, decay resistance, contact angle, and morphology of polypropylene/wood flour composites. BioRes 10(2):2113–2129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Md Jamil SNA, Daik R, Ahmad I (2014) Synthesis and thermal properties of acrylonitrile/butyl acrylate/fumaronitrile and acrylonitrile/ethyl hexyl acrylate/fumaronitrile terpolymers as a potential precursor for carbon fiber. Mater 7:6207–6223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mekhemer WK, El-Ala AAA, El-Rafey E (2006) Clay as a filler in the thermoplastic compounding. Mol Crystals Liq Crystals Sci Technol 354(1):13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mohy Eldin MS, Elaassar MR, Elzatahry AA, Al-Sabah MMB (2014) Poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles: I. Arabian J Chem, Preparation and characterization. doi: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.10.037 Google Scholar
  22. Moodley VK (2007) The synthesis, structure and properties of polypropylene nanocomposites. Durban University of Technology, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  23. Pakeyangkoon P, Ploydee B (2013) Mechanical properties of acrylate-styrene- acrylonitrile/bagasse composites. Adv Mater Res 747:353–358Google Scholar
  24. Parshaei S, Hosseinzadeh S (2016) Preparation of organo nanoclay incorporated polyamide/melamine cyanurate/nanoclay composites and study on thermal and mechanical behaviours. Iran Chem Comm 4:102–114Google Scholar
  25. Pour RH, Soheilmoghaddam M, Hassan A, Bourbigot S (2015) Flammability and thermal properties of polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanocomposites reinforced with multilayer graphene. Polym Degrad Stab 120:88–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Prochon M, Przepiorkowska A, Zaborki M (2007) Keratin as a filler for car boxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber XNBR. J Appl Polym Sci 106(6):3674–3687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rahman MR, Lai JCH, Hamdan S, Ahmed AS, Baini R, Saleh SF (2013) Combined styrene/MMA/nanoclay cross-linker effect on wood-polymer composites (WPCs). BioRes 8(3):4227–4237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sekharnath KV, Rao SJ, Maruthi Y, Babu PK, Rao KC, Subha MCS (2015) Halloysite nanoclay-filled blend membranes of sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose/hydroxyl propyl cellulose for pervaporation separation of water- isopropanol mixtures. Ind J Adv Chem Sci 3(2):160–170Google Scholar
  29. Siddiqui MN, Redhwi HH, Gkinis K, Achilias DS (2013) Synthesis and char acterization of novel nanocomposite materials based on poly(styrene-co- butyl methacrylate) copolymers and organo modified clay. Eur Polym J 49(2):353–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Singh P, Ghosh AK (2014) Torsional, tensile and structural properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene clay nanocomposites. Mater Des 55:137–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smitinand T, Larsen K (1984) Flora of Thailand volume four part one. TISTR Press, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  32. Stark MN, Matuana ML (2007) Characterization of weathered wood-plastic composite surfaces using FTIR spectroscopy, contact angle and XPS. Polym Degrad Stab 92:1883–1890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sultan MT, Rahman MR, Hamdan S, Lai JCH, Talib ZA (2016) Clay dispersed styrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate impregnated kumpang wood polymer nanocomposites: Impact on mechanical and morphological properties. BioRes 11(3):6649–6662Google Scholar
  34. Tesinova P (2011) Advances in composite materials—analysis of natural and man-made material. InTech, European Union, p 584Google Scholar
  35. Vorreiter L (1949) Holztechnologies Handbuch. Verlag Georg Fromme und Co, Wien, p 548Google Scholar
  36. Zhang M, Zeng H, Zhang L, Lin G, Li RKY (1993) Fracture characteristics of discontinuous carbon fibre-reinforced PPS and PES-C composites. Polym Polym Comp 1:357–365Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia SarawakKota SamarahanMalaysia

Personalised recommendations