Restart of the EU–SADC EPA Negotiation and Its Outcome
- 195 Downloads
The chapter focuses on the reasons for the restart of the negotiations by the South African government and the final results of the Economic Partnership Agreement. The major reason for continuing was the danger to regional integration projects like the Southern African Customs Union. Another factor was the break-up of the class compromise as agricultural and manufacturing capital pushed for better access to the European market. The final outcome of the agreement solved conflict issues in trade in goods, but new issues like geographical indications were also included. Overall, the chapter demonstrates a class fragmentation of the relationship of forces in the EPA process.
KeywordsEconomic Partnership Agreement (EPA) Southern African Development Community (SADC) Southern African Customs Union Trade, Development And Cooperation Agreement (TDCA) Interim EPA
- African News Agency. 2015. Mbeki Slams Economic Partnership Agreements with EU as Unfair and Unbalanced. October 8. http://www.polity.org.za/article/mbeki-slams-economic-partnership-agreements-with-eu-as-unfair-and-unbalanced-2015-10-08. Accessed 14 Mar 2017.
- Carim, Xavier. 2010. Update on EPA Negotiations. Speaking points to Tralac Seminar. European Commission, September 13. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2010/september/tradoc_146522.30%20July%202010.2.pdf. Accessed 3 Nov 2014.
- ———. 2013. Agricultural Dimensions of the EPA Negotiations Between the SADC EPA Group and the EU. An Interview with Mr Xavier Carim, Deputy Director-General of the International Trade and Economic Division of South Africa’s Department of Trade and Industry. Agritrade, June 30. http://agritrade.cta.int/Agriculture/Topics/EPAs/Agricultural-dimensions-of-the-EPA-negotiations-between-the-SADC-EPA-Group-and-the-EU. Accessed 3 Nov 2014.
- ———. 2014. Bridges Africa Talks to Xavier Carim from South Africa, Interview with Xavier Carim. International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, March 17. http://www.ictsd.org/bridges-news/bridges-africa/news/bridges-africa-talks-to-xavier-carim-from-south-africa. Accessed 3 Nov 2014.
- ———. 2017. South Africa, the EU, and the SADC Group Economic Partnership Agreement: Through the Negotiating Lens The ACP Group and the EU Development Partnership. In Beyond the North-South Debate, ed. Annita Montoute and Kudrat Virk, 161–180. Cham: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
- Davies, Rob. 2014. The SADC EPA and Beyond. GREAT Insights Magazine 3 (9). http://ecdpm.org/great-insights/economic-partnership-agreements-beyond/sadc-epa-beyond/. Accessed 14 Dec 2014
- Department of Agricultural, Foresty and Fisheries (DAFF). 2016. Quotas Under the Trade, Development, and Co-operation Agreement/Economic Partnership Agreement Between the European Union and the Republic of South Africa for the Year 2017. No. 1553, Government Gazette, October 28, 2016, No. 40379. 4–26. http://www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/40379_gon1353.pdf. Accessed 23 Feb 2017.
- Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). 2010. A South African Trade Policy and Strategic Framework. Department of Trade and Industry. http://www.dti.gov.za/trade_investment/export_publications.jsp?year=&subthemeid=26. Accessed 17 Feb 2012.
- ———. 2016. Briefing to the Parliamentary Committee on the Evolution of EU-ACP Relations and the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) Negotiations, June 20. Department of Trade and Industry. https://www.thedti.gov.za/parliament/2016/Evolution_EPA_negotiations.pdf. Accessed 14 Mar 2017.
- DIRCO. 2016. The United Kingdom’s Exit (BREXIT) from the European Union and Its Implications. Presentation to the Portfolio Committee, August 31.Google Scholar
- European Commission. 2013. Overview of EPA Negotiations. Updated November 10, 2013. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2009/september/tradoc_144912.pdf. Accessed 14 Jan 2014.
- ———. 2014a. Southern African Region and the EU Complete Negotiations for an Economic Partnership Agreement. Press Release. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-14-872_en.htm. Accessed 3 Nov 2014.
- ———. 2014b. Economic Partnership Agreement with SADC EPA Group. September 5, 2014. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2014/october/tradoc_152818.pdf. Accessed 3 Nov 2014.
- ———. 2016. The Economic Impact of the EC—SADC EPA Group Economic Partnership Agreement. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2016/june/tradoc_154663.pdf. Accessed 2 Mar 2017.
- Gibb, Richard. 2016. The Impact of Brexit on South Africa. Daily Maverick, November 30, https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2016-11-30-op-ed-the-impact-of-brexit-on-south-africa/. Accessed 19 June 2017.
- Grant-Makokera, Catherina, and Lambert Botha. 2011. South Africa—European Union Trade: Age-old Chestnuts and Dealmakers. South African Institute of International Affairs, October 4. http://www.saiia.org.za/opinion-analysis/south-africa-european-union-trade-age-old-chestnuts-and-dealmakers. Accessed 14 Dec 2014.
- Julian, Melissa. 2010a. EPA Update. Trade Negotiations Insight 9 (2).Google Scholar
- ———. 2010b. EPA Update. Trade Negotiations Insight 9 (6).Google Scholar
- ———. 2011a. EPA Update. Trade Negotiations Insight 10 (1).Google Scholar
- ———. 2011b. EPA Update. Trade Negotiations Insight 10 (2).Google Scholar
- Kruger, Niki. 2016. Presentation to the Portfolio Committee on Trade and Industry on the SADC and EU Economic Partnership Agreement. Republic of South Africa, Department Trade and Industry, August 24. https://www.thedti.gov.za/parliament/2016/EPA_24August_2016.pdf. Accessed 14 Mar 2017.
- Lorenz, Ulrike. 2011. Negotiating Regional Trade Agreements—Transforming Regional Order. The Economic Partnership Agreements Between the European Union and the SADC EPA Group. Ph.D. Dissertation, Universität Leipzig.Google Scholar
- Lorenz-Carl, Ulrike. 2013. When the ‘Not so Weak’ Bargain with the ‘not so Strong’: Whose Agency Matters in the Economic Partnership Agreements. In Mapping Agency: Comparing Regionalisms in Africa, ed. Ulrike Lorenz-Carl and Martin Rempe, 61–76. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Mlumbi-Peter, Xolelwa. 2016. SADC and EU Economic Partnership Agreement. Presentation to the Portfolio Committee on International Relations and Cooperation, Department of Trade and Industry, September 7.Google Scholar
- O’Grady, Frances. 2016. TUC Calls on MEPs to Reject Economic Partnership Agreement Between EU and Southern African Countries, June 10. https://www.tuc.org.uk/international-issues/trade/world-tradetrade-justice/tuc-calls-meps-reject-economic-partnership. Accessed 14 Mar 2017.
- Razzaque, Mohammad, and Brendan Vickers. 2016. Post-Brexit UK-ACP Trading Arrangements: Some Reflections. Commonwealth Trade Hot Topics, Issue 137. http://thecommonwealth.org/sites/default/files/news-items/documents/5jln9q109bmr-en.pdf. Accessed 19 June 2017.
- de Roquefeuil, Quentin. 2014. EPA Update. GREAT Insights 3 (7). http://ecdpm.org/great-insights/epa-update-july-august-2014/. Accessed 6 Nov 2014.
- Tralac. 2016. South Africa’s Transition from TDCA to EPA: Agricultural Market Access. November 4. https://www.tralac.org/news/article/10734-south-africa-s-transition-from-tdca-to-epa.html#downloads. Accessed 23 Jan 2017.
- ———. 2017. SADC Legal Texts and Policy Documents. https://www.tralac.org/resources/by-region/sadc.html. Accessed 14 Mar 2017.
List of Interviews
- Civil servant 1 and 2, Pretoria, 05.10.2010 (recorded)Google Scholar
- Civil servant 3, Pretoria, 13.10.2010Google Scholar
- Civil society representative 1, Cape Town, 25.10.2010 (recorded)Google Scholar
- Former business representative, Pretoria, 27.01.2011 (recorded)Google Scholar
- Legal trade expert, Pretoria, 26.01.2011 (recorded)Google Scholar
- Trade expert 1 and 2, Pretoria, 25.01.2011 (recorded)Google Scholar