Sporting Masculinities in Prison
- 296 Downloads
Sport plays a key role within discourses of masculinity in Western contemporary culture. Throughout mainstream prison research, the male offender is recognised (or perhaps unrecognised) as the non-gendered offender. However, contemporary researchers are beginning to acknowledge the omission of their predecessors to treat the gender of male subjects as problematic (Morgan, 1986; Newton, 1994). Nonetheless, this explicit recognition remains relatively unusual in academia, as within the prison walls there still exists an apparent silence around gender and masculinity (Sabo, 2000). Johnsen’s ethnographic study of sport, masculinities and power relations in a Norwegian prison revealed that few male prisoners view themselves as gendered men or have a “conscious relationship to the concept of masculinity” (Johnsen 2001, p. 108), instead appearing more at ease discussing femininity and their gender in relation to women (Johnsen 2001). So, although research is now serving to objectify male prisoners as gendered subjects, for the most part male prisoners seem to be subjectively unaware of their gender, except perhaps, in the context of sport. When referring to young offenders (aged 15–21 years old), it is also important to consider that adolescent boys may experience masculinity in a somewhat different manner to adults, particularly in British society where masculinities of young men are often presented as being problematic (Frosh, 2001). The criminality of young offenders suggests that their experience of masculinities has been more negative than most, leading them to construct a masculinity which conflicts with social norms and laws. Although there is limited research which focuses on the role of sport in debates of masculinity in prison, this chapter will consider literature on sporting masculinities across the community and the prison estate where possible, in the context of both adult prisoners and young offenders, making inferences where research does not exist.
KeywordsSport Physical activity Exercise Prison Well-being
- Adler, A., & Adler, P. (1998). Peer power: Preadolescent culture and identity. London: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
- All-Parliamentary Group for Boxing. (2015). Boxing: The right Hook. [Online]. Available at: https://appgboxing.wordpress.com/2015/03/17/boxing-the-right-hook/. Accessed 26 Jan 2017.
- Anderson, E. (2011). Inclusive masculinity: The changing nature of masculinities. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Bourdieu, P. (2001). Masculine domination. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
- Connell, R. W. (1990). An iron man: The body and some contradictions of hegemonic masculinity. In M. A. Messner & D. F. Sabo (Eds.), Sport, men and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives. Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
- Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
- Foley, H. A., Carlton, C. O., & Howell, R. J. (1996). The relationship of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder to juvenile delinquency: Legal implications. The Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 24(3), 333–345.Google Scholar
- Foucault, M. (1991). Space, knowledge and power. In P. Rabinow (Ed.), The Foucault reader: An introduction to Foucault’s thought. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- Gilbert, R., & Gilbert, P. (1998). Masculinity goes to school. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Johnsen, B. (2001). Sport, masculinities and power relations in prison. Oslo: The Norwegian University of Sport and Physical Education, Norges Idrettshøgskole.Google Scholar
- Legislation.gov.uk. (2017). Criminal Justice Act 2013. [Online]. Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2003/44/schedule/15. Accessed 26 Jan 2017.
- McNay, L. (1992). Foucault and feminism. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
- Meek, R. (2014). Sport in prison: Exploring the role of physical activity in correctional settings. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Meek, R., Champion N., & Klier S. (2012). Fit for release. London: Prisoners Education Trust.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Justice. (2011). Physical Education (PE) for Prisoners. PSI 58/2011. National Offender Management Service. Available at: https://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/offenders/psipso/psi-2011/psi-58-2011-physical-education.doc. Accessed 26 Jan 2017.
- Morgan, D. (2000, March). Problems with masculinities. Lecture at the seminar “Researching Masculinities” in Trondheim, 20–23.Google Scholar
- National Offender Management Service. (2015). Release on temporary licence. PSI 13/2015. Available at: https://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/offenders/psipso/psi-2015/psi-13-2015-release-on-temporary-licence.docx. Accessed 26 Jan 2017.
- Messner, M. A. and Sabo, D. F. (1994). Sex, Violence & Power in Sports: Rethinking Masculinity. Freedom, CA: The Crossing Press.Google Scholar
- Sabo, D. F. (2000, October 13). Prison masculinities: Issues for research on men, masculinities, and gender relations. Lecture in Oslo.Google Scholar
- Sabo, D. (2001). Doing Time, Doing Masculinity: Sports and Prisons, In Sabo, D., Kupers, T. A. & London, W. (eds) Prison Masculinities. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
- Schawalbe, M. (1992). Male supremacy and the narrowing of the moral self. Berkley Journal of Sociology, 37, 29–54.Google Scholar
- Shilling, C. (1993). The body and social theory. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- United States Government. (1997). 104th Congress Public Law. Accessed at: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-104publ208/html/PLAW-104publ208.htm. Accessed 26 Jan 2017.