Case Study: Don’t Say Street Art, Just Say Fanzara

Part of the FGF Studies in Small Business and Entrepreneurship book series (FGFS)


The aim of this work is to present the case study of Fanzara, a small village in the inner province of Castellón (Valencian Community, Spain). This rural locality (323 inhabitants) is home to an aging population and receives many tourists in the summer. In 2014, the inhabitants of Fanzara decided to start a social entrepreneurship project in which urban street art-related artists, painters and entrepreneurs were invited to decorate the walls of the village houses, which would be given up freely by their inhabitants.

The objective was to provide real added value to the village so that its inhabitants could enjoy these cultural initiatives. The initial idea of creating beauty developed into the creation of an “unfinished urban art museum,” where top national and international graffiti artists have participated.

Our work seeks to analyze how the entrepreneurial drive of the people involved in this cultural initiative has placed Fanzara on the world’s street art map, revitalizing the village and at the same time creating a sense of community.


Rural tourism Street art Creative industries Cultural management Rural development Entrepreneurship 



Javier López, MIAU Director, Ángel Sánchez and Carme Ripollés; Photographs by ACF.


  1. Ap, J. (1992). Residents’ perceptions on tourism impact. Annals on tourism research, 19(4), 665–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bramwell, B., & Lane, B. (1994). Rural tourism and sustainable rural development. London: Channel View.Google Scholar
  3. Bunce, M. (1994). The countryside ideal: Anglo-American images of landscape. London: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  4. Cánoves, G., Villarino, M., Priestley, G. K., & Blanco, A. (2004). Rural tourism in Spain: An analysis of recent evolution. Geoforum, 35(6), 755–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cavaco, C. (1995). Rural tourism: The creation of new tourist spaces. In A. Montanari & A. M. Williams (Eds.), European tourism: Regions, spaces and restructuring (pp. 129–149). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Costa, P., & Lopes, R. (2015). Is street art institutionalizable? Challenges to an alternative urban policy in Lisbon. Métropoles No. 17.Google Scholar
  7. Diedrich, A., & García-Buades, E. (2009). Local perceptions of tourism as indicators of destination decline. Tourism Management, 30(4), 512–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Felsenstein, D., & Fleischer, A. (2003). Local festivals and tourism promotion: The role of public assistance and visitor expenditure. Journal of Travel Research, 41(4), 385–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fleischer, A., & Felsenstein, D. (2000). Support for rural tourism: Does it make a difference? Annals of Tourism Research, 27(4), 1007–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fridgen, J. D. (1990). Dimensions of tourism. Lansing, MI: Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association.Google Scholar
  11. Gastman, R., Rowland, D., & Sattler, I. (2006). Freight train graffiti. New York: Harry N. Abrams.Google Scholar
  12. Gunn, C. A. (1980). Tourism planning. New York: Crane Russak.Google Scholar
  13. Kotler, P., Haider, D. H., & Rein, I. (1993). Marketing places: Attracting investment, industry and tourism to cities, states and nations. Nova Iorque: Free Press.Google Scholar
  14. Kumra, R. (2008, May). Service quality in rural tourism: A prescriptive approach. In Conference on tourism in India–challenges ahead (Vol. 15, p. 17).Google Scholar
  15. Kuvan, Y., & Akan, P. (2005). Residents’ attitudes toward general and forest-related impacts of tourism: The case of Belek, Antalya. Tourism Management, 26(5), 691–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lewis, J. B. (1998). A rural tourism development model. Tourism Analysis, 2(2), 91–105.Google Scholar
  17. López Olivares, D. (2001). La evaluación de los recursos territoriales turísticos de las comarcas del interior castellonense (Comunidad Valenciana). Investigaciones geográficas, 25, 137–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Macdonald, N. (2001). The graffiti subculture: Youth, masculinity and identity in London and New York. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. MacDonald, R., & Jolliffe, L. (2003). Cultural rural tourism: Evidence from Canada. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(2), 307–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McAuliffe, C., & Iveson, K. (2011). Art and crime (and other things besides…): Conceptualizing graffiti in the city. Geography Compass, 5(3), 128–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Merrill, S. (2015). Keeping it real? Subcultural graffiti, street art, heritage and authenticity. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 21(4), 369–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Murphy, P. E. (2013). Tourism: A community approach (RLE Tourism). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Page, S., & Getz, D. (1997). The business of rural tourism: International perspectives. Andover, MA: Cengage Learning EMEA.Google Scholar
  24. Pastor Valls, M. T. (2016). MIAU (Fanzara), una propuesta social. Historia, materiales y conservación. Ge-conservación, 1(10), 135–145.Google Scholar
  25. Pearce, P. L. (1990). Farm tourism in New Zealand: A social situation analysis. Annals of Tourism Research, 17(3), 337–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Quintavalle, A. C. (2007). Graffiti, un’arte da non relegare in museo. Corriere della Sera.Google Scholar
  27. Rose, A., & Strike, C. (Eds.). (2004). Beautiful losers. New York: Iconoclast and DAP/Distributed Art Publishers.Google Scholar
  28. Shaw, G., & Williams, A. M. (1994). Critical issues in tourism. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  29. Smith, K. (2007). The guerilla art kit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Architectural Press.Google Scholar
  30. Stathopoulou, S., Psaltopoulos, D., & Skuras, D. (2004). Rural entrepreneurship in Europe: A research framework and agenda. International Journal of Entrepreneurial and Behaviour and Research, 10(6), 404–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Turnock, D. (1999). Sustainable rural tourism in the Romanian Carpathians. Geographical Journal, 165, 192–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ulmer, J. B. (2016). Writing urban space: Street art, democracy, and photographic cartography. Cultural Studies? Critical Methodologies. doi: 10.1177/1532708616655818.
  33. Visconti, L. M., Sherry, J. F., Borghini, S., & Anderson, L. (2010). Street art, sweet art? Reclaiming the “public” in public place. Journal of Consumer Research, 37(3), 511–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wilson, P. (1987). Research Brief: Graffiti and Vandalism on Public Transport. Australian Institute of Criminology, & Australia.Google Scholar
  35. Wortman, M. S. (1990). Rural entrepreneurship research: An integration into the entrepreneurship field. Agribusiness, 6(4), 329–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wilson, S., Fesenmaier, D. R., Fesenmaier, J., & Van Es, J. C. (2001). Factors for success in rural tourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 40(2), 132–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yagüe Perales, R. M. (2002). Rural tourism in Spain. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(4), 1101–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

On Line Reference List

  1. Arnau, J. (2016, August 19). Accessed February 15, 2017, from
  2. Arte Blanco Pilares de la Cultura. Accessed February 24, 2017, from
  3. Fanzara. (2017). Accessed February 15, 2017, from
  4. INE. Instituto Nacional de Estadística. (2017). The INE register. Accessed February 15, 2017, from
  5. Kassam, A. (2015, April 14). Accessed February 15, 2017, from
  6. LCI – TF 1 Télévision Française 1. (2016, December 27). Accessed February 19, 2017, from
  7. MARTE Feria del Arte Contemporáneo de Castellón. Accessed February 15, 2017, from
  8. Martin Firrell. Accessed February 15, 2017, from
  9. Martin Firrell. Accessed February 15, 2017, from
  10. MIAU. Museo Inacabado de Arte Urbano. (2017). The MIAU register. Accessed February 15, 2017, from
  11. Miguel Abellán ‘Pincho’. Accessed February 24, 2017, from
  12. Musseau, F. (2016, November 23). Accessed February 15, 2017, from
  13. Ortega, L. (2015, April 7). Accessed February 15, 2017, from
  14. Ripollés, C., & Sánchez, A. (2016). ACF Photograph.
  15. RTVE. Radio Televisión Española. (2015, October 8). Accessed February 20, 2017, from
  16. Sagra della street art. Accessed April 19, 2017, from
  17. Soto, A. (2016, August 30). Accessed February 15, 2017, from

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of LanguagesUniversidad Católica de Valencia “San Vicente Mártir”ValènciaSpain

Personalised recommendations