Cultural Entrepreneurship and Rural Development: Case Study of Pirot, Serbia

Part of the FGF Studies in Small Business and Entrepreneurship book series (FGFS)


The objective of this chapter is to provide an analysis and a better understanding of the characteristics, determinants, specific needs and business models of cultural entrepreneurs, as well as their impact on rural development. The chapter is primarily based on data collected during a mapping exercise and investigation of cultural entrepreneurs in Pirot (Serbia) during 2015. An assessment of the main characteristics of rural cultural entrepreneurship as well the impact thereof on rural development has been analyzed through an economic anthropological perspective. The aim of the chapter is to enable an insight into the attitudes and habits of rural cultural entrepreneurs in Pirot, to identify the characteristics and key obstacles of doing business in cultural industries, and to identify typical business models. Classification of cultural entrepreneurs was based on the customized UNESCO model. The material for the analysis includes answers from 187 survey respondents, workshops documentation, and results of group and individual consultations with cultural entrepreneurs and other stakeholders.


Cultural entrepreneurship Pirot Rural development Cultural industries entrepreneurs Business models Cultural economy 



Results presented in this chapter were collected within the project “Strengthening local and regional institutional capacities to develop cultural industries policies in Serbia” (2015) supported by the UNESCO International fund for cultural diversity, Paris.


  1. Aageson, T. H. (2008). Cultural entrepreneurs: Producing cultural value and wealth. In H. K. Anheier, Y. R. Isar, & A. Paul (Eds.), The cultural economy (pp. 93–107). Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad, N., & Hoffmann, N. (2008). A framework for addressing and measuring entrepreneurship. STD/DOC (2008)2. Geneva/Paris: Eurostat/OECD.Google Scholar
  3. Akgün, A. A., Baycan-Levent, T., & Nijkamp, P. (2010). Creative capacity for sustainable development: A comparative analysis of the European and Turkish rural regions. International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy, 7(1–3), 176–191.Google Scholar
  4. Bell, D., & Jayne, M. (2004). Creative industries development in Shropshire. Shrewsbury: Shropshire County Council.Google Scholar
  5. Bell, D., & Jayne, M. (2010). The creative countryside: Policy and practice in the UK rural cultural economy. Journal of Rural Studies, 26(3), 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bianchini, F., Fisher, M., Montgomery, J., & Worpole, K. (1988). City centres, city cultures: The role of the arts in the revitalization of towns and cities. Manchester: Centre for Local Economic Development Strategies.Google Scholar
  7. Blaug, M., & Towse, R. (2011). Cultural entrepreneurship. In R. Towse (Ed.), A handbook of cultural economics (pp. 153–157). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  8. BOP Consulting. (2012). Craft in an age of change. London: Crafts Council.Google Scholar
  9. Bosma, N., Coduras, A., Litovsky, Y., & Seaman, J. (2012). GEM Manual: A report on the design, data and quality control of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. London: Global Entrepreneurship Research Association.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, J. (2014). Making it local: What does this mean in the context of contemporary craft? London: Crafts Council.Google Scholar
  11. Bunting, T., & Mitchell, C. (2001). Artists in rural locales: Market access, landscape appeal and economic exigency. The Canadian Geographer, 45, 268–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caves, R. (2000). Creative industries – contracts between arts and commerce. London: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Collins, E. (Ed.). (2004). Crafts in the English countryside: Towards a future. Wetherby: Countryside Agency.Google Scholar
  14. Cowen, T. (1998). In praise of commercial culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Crafts Council. (2005). Putting craft into new contexts. London: Crafts Council.Google Scholar
  16. Dimaggio, P. (1982). Cultural entrepreneurship in nineteenth-century Boston: The creation of an organizational base for high culture in America. Media, Culture and Society, 4(1), 33–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ellmeier, A. (2003). Cultural entrepreneurialism: On the changing relationship between the arts, culture and employment. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 9(1), 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Evans, G. (2001). Cultural planning an urban renaissance? London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fisher, M., & Nijkamp, P. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of regional science. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  20. Florida, R. (2002). The rise of the creative class. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  21. Fujita, M., & Mori, T. (2005). Frontiers of the new economic geography. Discussion paper no. 27. Institute of developing economies, Accessed Nov 1, 2016, from
  22. Gibson, C. (2002). Rural transformation and cultural industries: Popular music on the New South Wales Far North Coast. Australian Geographical Studies, 40(3), 336–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gouldner, A. (1979). Future of intellectuals and the rise of new class. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grossman, G., & Helpman, E. (1991). Innovation and growth in the global economy. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hagoort, G., Thomassen, A., & Kooyman, R. (Eds.). (2012). Pioneering minds worldwide: On the entrepreneurial principles of the cultural and creative industries. Eburon Uitgeverij BV.Google Scholar
  26. Hausmann, A. (2010). German artists between bohemian idealism and entrepreneurial dynamics: Reflections on cultural entrepreneurship and the need for start-up management. International Journal of Arts Management, 12(2), 17–29.Google Scholar
  27. Hirschman, A. (1958). The strategy of economic development. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  28. HKU. (2010). The entrepreneurial dimension of the cultural and creative industries. Utrecht: Hogeschool vor de Kunsten Utrecht. Accessed November 1, 2016, from
  29. Horkheimer, M., & Adorno, T. (1979). Dijalektika prosvetiteljstva. Sarajevo: Svetlost.Google Scholar
  30. Jensen, R. (1999). The Dream Society: How the coming shift from information to imagination will transform your business. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.Google Scholar
  31. Jovanović, B. (2012). Stari zanati Pirota i okoline. Pirot: Narodna biblioteka.Google Scholar
  32. Katre, A. (2015). Cultural Entrepreneurship: How are Intentions to be a Cultural Entrepreneur Formed? Business Creativity and the Creative Economy, 1(1), 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Klamer, A. (2011). Cultural entrepreneurship. The Review of Austrian Economics, 24(2), 141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Krugman, P. (1995). Development, geography and economic theory. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  35. Landry, C., & Bianchini, F. (1995). The creative city. London: Demos & Comedia.Google Scholar
  36. Landry, C., Bianchini, F., Ebert, R., Gnad, F., & Kunzman, K. (1996). The creative city in Britain and Germany. London: Anglo-German Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society.Google Scholar
  37. Lazzeroni, M., Bellini, N., Cortesi, G., & Loffredo, A. (2013). The territorial approach to cultural economy: New opportunities for the development of small towns. European Planning Studies, 21, 452–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lloyd, R. (2002). Neo-Bohemia: Art and neighbourhood redevelopment in Chicago. Journal of Urban Affairs, 24(5), 517–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lucas, R. (1988). On the mechanics of economic development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 22, 3–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Markusen, A., & King, D. (2003). The artistic dividend: The arts’ hidden contributions to regional development. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, Project on Regional and Industrial Economics. Accessed November 1, 2016, from
  41. Markusen, A., & Schrock, G. (2010). Artistic dividend: Urban artistic specialization and economic development implication. Urban Studies, 43(10), 1661–1861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McAuley, A., & Fillis, I. (2005). Careers and lifestyles of craft makers in the 21st century. Cultural Trends, 14, 139–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McGranahan, D., & Wojan, T. (2007). Recasting the creative class to examine growth processes in rural and urban counties. Regional Studies, 41(2), 197–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McGranahan, D. A., Wojan, T. R., & Lambert, D. M. (2011). The rural growth trifecta: Outdoor amenities, creative class and entrepreneurial context. Journal of Economic Geography, 11, 529–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mikić, H. (2012). Measuring economic contribution of cultural industries: Review and assessment of methodological approaches. Montreal: UNESCO Institute for statistics.Google Scholar
  46. Mikić, H. (2015a). Lokalni razvoj i kreativne industrije: priručnik za planiranje i upravljanje na lokalnom nivou. Beograd: Fondacija Grupa za kreativnu ekonomiju.Google Scholar
  47. Mikić, H. (2015b). Case study Serbia: Measuring economic contribution of cultural industries. Montreal: UNESCO-Institute for statistics.Google Scholar
  48. Mikić, H. (2017a). Kreativne industrije: Pirot. Beograd: Fondacija Grupa za kreativnu ekonomiju.Google Scholar
  49. Mikić, H. (2017b). Kreativno preduzetništvo: teorija i praksa. Beograd: Fondacija Grupa za kreativnu ekonomiju.Google Scholar
  50. Myrdal, G. (1957). Economic theory and under-developed regions. New York: Methuen.Google Scholar
  51. Palare, M. (2010). Balkanske privrede oko 1800–1914. Beograd: Službeni glasnik.Google Scholar
  52. Paulsen, K., & Staggs, K. (2005). Constraint and reproduction in an amateur craft institution: The conservative logic of the county fair. Poetics: Journal of Empirical Research on Culture, The Media and the Arts, 33, 134–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pérroux, F. (1955). La Notion de Pole de Croissance. Économie Appliquée, 1–2, 307–340.Google Scholar
  54. Potts, J. (2007). Art and innovation: An evolutionary view of the creative industries. UNESCO Observatory, 1(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  55. Potts, J. (2009). Why the creative industries matter to economic evolution. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 18(7/8), 663–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pratt, A. (1997). The cultural industries production system: A case study of employment change in Britain, 1984-91. Environmental and Planning, 29, 1953–1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ray, C. (1998). Culture, intellectual property and territorial rural development. Sociologia Ruralis, 38(1), 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ray, C. (2001). Cultural Economies: A perspective on local rural development in Europe. Centre for Rural Economy, Newcastle University. Accessed November 1, 2016, from
  59. Romer, P. (1986). Increasing returns and long-run growth. Journal of Political Economy, 94(5), 1002–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Romer, P. (1990). Endogenous technological change. Journal of Political Economy, 98, 71–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Scott, A. J. (Ed.). (2000). The cultural economy of cities. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  62. Solow, R. (1956). Contribution to the theory of economic growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70, 65–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Suutari, T., Saartenoja, A., Salo, K., & Kareinen, J. (2010). Creative economy and cultural entrepreneurship in rural Europe insights into the European Region of Culture designation in South Ostrobothnia region in Finland. Regional. Seinäjoki: Council of South Ostrobothnia Accessed November 01, 2016, from
  64. Swan, T. (1956). Economic growth and capital accumulation. Economic Record, 32, 334–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Throsby, D. (1999). Cultural capital. Journal of Cultural Economics, 23, 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. UNESCO. (2009). The 2009 Framework for cultural statistics. Montreal: UNESCO Institute for statistics.Google Scholar
  67. Vanclay, S. (2011). Endogenous rural development from a sociological perspective. In R. Stimson, R. Stough, & P. Nijkamp (Eds.), Endogenous regional development: Perspectives, measurement and empirical investigation (pp. 59–72). Cheltenham: Edward Edgar.Google Scholar
  68. Wojan, T. R. (2000). The composition of rural employment growth in the “new economy”. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 90, 392–408.Google Scholar
  69. Wojan, T. R., & McGranahan, D. A. (2007). Ambient returns: creative capital’s contribution to local manufacturing competitiveness. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, 36(1), 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wojan, T. R., Lambert, D. M., & McGranahan, D. A. (2007a). Emoting with their feet: Bohemian attraction to creative milieu – super-T. Journal of Economic Geography, 7(6), 711–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wojan, T. R., Lambert, D. M., & McGranahan, D. A. (2007b). The emergence of rural artistic havens: A first look. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, 36, 53–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zukin, S. (1989). Loft living culture and capital in urban change. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fondacija Grupa za kreativnu ekonomiju (Creative Economy Group Foundation)BelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations