Shifting Values, New Norms: Social Media and the Changing Profession of Journalism
Shifting Values, New Norms: Social Media and the Changing Profession of Journalism (This Chapter) explores how journalists are balancing individual, organisational and professional norms while transitioning journalistic professional activity into social media environments. Practices that conform to social media policies, as well as new relationships in the newsroom, were seen to create both opportunities and tensions in utilising social media for journalism. What many of these changes amount to, however, is a fundamental shift in the way professional journalism is understood and, subsequently, a steady erosion of the professional authority maintained by journalists. This chapter focusses on the ways journalists represent professional identity on popular social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook and Instagram. Bossio argues that the ways journalists present their personal and professional identities on social media corresponds to some of the complex professional and organisational influences they are attempting to balance.
- Barber, B. (1963). Some problems in the sociology of the professions. Daedalus, 92(4), 669–688.Google Scholar
- Baym, N. (1998). The emergence of online community. In S. Jones (Ed.), Cybersociety 2.0: Revisiting Computer Mediated Communication and Community (pp. 35–68). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Bossio, D., & Sacco, V. (2016). Don’t tweet this! How journalists and media organisations negotiate tensions emerging from the implementation of social media policy in newsrooms. Digital Journalism, 5(2), 177–193.Google Scholar
- boyd, d. (2006). Friends, friendsters and myspace top 8: Writing community into being on social network sites. First Monday, 11(2) Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/article/view/1418/1336.
- boyd, d. (2008). Taken out of context: American teen sociality in networked publics. PhD dissertation, University of California Berkeley.Google Scholar
- Boylan, J. (2003). Pulitzer’s School: Columbia University’s School of Journalism, 1903–2003. USA: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Chalmers, M. (2015, April 27). Media Union challenges fairness of social media policies after Scott McIntyre dismissal. The New Matilda. Retrieved from https://newmatilda.com/2015/04/27/media-union-challenges-fairness-social-media-policies-after-scott-mcintyre-dismissal/.
- Chalmers, M. (2016, April 11). SBS deletes media statement after settling with Scott McIntyre over ANZAC Day tweets. The New Matilda. Retrieved from https://newmatilda.com/2016/04/11/sbs-deletes-media-statement-after-settling-with-scott-mcintyre-over-anzac-day-tweets/.
- Durkheim, E. (2013). Professional ethics and civic morals (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Evetts, J. (2003). The sociological analysis of professionalism: Occupational change in the modern world. International Sociology, 18(2), 395–415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0268580903018002005.
- Fredriksson, M., & Bendt, J. (2014). The Dynamics of Professional Identity. Journalism Practice, 8(5), 585–595.Google Scholar
- Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. London: Allen Lane The Penguin Press.Google Scholar
- Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York: Schuster & Schuster.Google Scholar
- Hedman, U. (2016). When journalists tweet: Disclosure, participatory, and personal transparency. Social Media + Society, 2(1), http://dx.doi.org/2056305115624528.
- Heinonen, A. (2011). The journalist’s relationship with users: New dimensions to conventional roles. In J. B. Singer, D. Domingo, A. Heinonen, A. Hermida, S. Paulussen, T. Quandt, Z. Reich, & M. Vujnovic (Eds.), Participatory journalism: Guarding open gates at online newspapers (pp. 34–55). West Sussex: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heinrich, A. (2011). Network journalism: Journalistic practice in interactive spheres. Hoboken, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Hermida, A. (2012). Social journalism: Exploring how social media is shaping journalism. In E. Siapera & A. Veglis (Eds.), The handbook of global online journalism (pp. 309–328). West Sussex: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Holton, A. E. (2016). Intrapreneurial Informants. Journalism Practice. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2016.1166069.
- Holton, A. E., & Molyneux, L. (2015). Identity lost? The personal impact of brand journalism. Journalism. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1464884915608816.
- Juergens, G. (2015). Joseph Pulitzer and the New York world. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Marwick, A., & boyd, d. (2011). I Tweet Honestly, I Tweet Passionately: Twitter Users, Context Collapse, and the Imagined Audience. New Media and Society, 13(1), 114–133. doi: 10.1177/1461444810365313.
- Meet the Team. (n.d). Nine News. Retrieved from http://www.9news.com.au/meet-the-team/melbourne/peter-hitchener.
- Rothman, R. (1998). Working: Sociological perspectives. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Seitz, D. (1927). Joseph Pulitzer, his life and letters. USA: Garden City Publishing Co.Google Scholar
- Singer, J. (2012). The ethics of social journalism. Australian Journalism Review, 34(1), 3–16.Google Scholar
- Steenson, S. (2016). The intimization of journalism. In T. Witschge, C. W. Anderson, D. Domingo, & A. Hermida (Eds.), (pp. 113–127). The SAGE Handbook of Digital Journalism. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Turkle, S. (1995). Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
- Whitebourn, M. (2015, April 26). SBS presenter Scott McIntyre sacked over ‘inappropriate’ Anzac Day tweets. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from http://www.smh.com.au/national/ww1/sbs-presenter-scott-mcintyre-sacked-over-inappropriate-anzac-day-tweets-20150426-1mtbx8.html.
- Wiik, J. (2010). Journalism in Transition. The Professional Identity of Swedish Journalists. Institutionen for Journalistik, medier och kommunikation: Goteborgs Universitet.Google Scholar
- Zelizer, B. (2004). Taking journalism seriously: News and the academy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar