Prostate Cancer

  • Sanchia S. Goonewardene
  • Raj Persad


Prostate cancer is a large and important clinical challenge. There are around 2.5 million cancer survivors worldwide [1, 2]. This is largely a result of improved diagnostics and surgical advances. Over the past 10 years, radical prostatectomy has developed as the gold standard for surgical treatment [3, 4]. Post-surgery therapy (during the survivorship phase), the most significant concerns prostate cancer survivors encounter are psychosexual in nature [5]. Prostate cancer occurs in males, more commonly above the age of 50: one in seven men has the disease. Over 40,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year in the UK; this is over 100 per day. By 2030, prostate cancer is estimated to be the most common cancer overall. Even though prostate cancer has shown one of the biggest rises in incidence of any cancer in the last decade (with age-standardised incidence rates rising by 22% between 1999–2001 and 2008–2010), the age-standardised mortality rate has fallen by around a tenth (11%) over the last 10 years. Cancer survivorship is a high priority for the National Health Service (NHS). There are around two million cancer survivors worldwide [1] and this figure is predicted to rise by one million per decade from 2010 to 2040 [2]. This is largely a result of improved diagnostics and medical treatment. Yet within this cohort, there are a significant number of younger cancer diagnoses, with prolonged life expectancy. Hospital clinics are often overbooked with patients potentially cured of prostate cancer, being followed up to detect disease recurrence [1]. As a result, very little time is available for each patient. Financially, the NHS hospitals are struggling with this demand. Post radical therapy, the most significant problem survivors encounter are psychosexual concerns [6]. There is a potentially large negative impact on sexual function post radical therapy for prostate cancer [7].


  1. 1.
    Maddams J, Brewster D, Gavin A, Steward J, Elliott J, Utley M, Moller H. Cancer prevalence in the United Kingdom: estimates for 2008. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:541–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Maddams J, Utley M, Moller H. Projections of cancer prevalence in the United Kingdom, 2010-2040. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:1195–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dasgupta P, Jones A, Gill IS. Robotic urological surgery: a perspective. BJU Int Suppl. 2005;95:20–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Davis JW, Dasgupta P. A case-mix-adjusted comparison of early oncological outcomes of open and robotic prostatectomy performed by experienced high volume surgeons. BJU Int. 2013;111:184–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kilminster S, Muller S, Menon M, Joseph JV, Ralph DJ, Patel HRH. Predicting erectile function outcome in men after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2012;110:422–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Northouse LL, Mood DW, Schafenacker A, Montie JE, Sandler HM, Forman JD, Hussain M, Pienta KJ, Smith DC, Kershaw T. Randomized clinical trial of a family intervention for prostate cancer patients and their spouses. Cancer. 2007;110:2809–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Akbal C, Tinay I, Simsek F, Turkeri LN. Erectile dysfunction following radiotherapy and brachytherapy for prostate cancer: pathophysiology, prevention and treatment. Int Urol Nephrol. 2008;40:355–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanchia S. Goonewardene
    • 1
  • Raj Persad
    • 2
  1. 1.The Royal Free Hospital and UCLLondonUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.North Bristol NHS TrustBristolUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations