Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing and Survivorship
The worldwide increase in the elderly population is having significant impact on healthcare systems globally . Between 2009 and 2010, more than 7.4 million individuals aged 60 years and older required some form of hospital in-patient treatment in the UK, a rise of 37% since 1999–2000 . Modern urological surgery has advanced much, both technologically and in its delivery; with developments such as robotic surgery and enhanced recovery. However, despite advancement in minimally invasive techniques, major open surgery will always have a role to play. In addition to this even robotic assisted laparoscopic procedures are still considered ‘major’ or perhaps ‘less major than previously’.
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