Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing and Survivorship

  • Sanchia S. Goonewardene
  • Raj Persad


The worldwide increase in the elderly population is having significant impact on healthcare systems globally [1]. Between 2009 and 2010, more than 7.4 million individuals aged 60 years and older required some form of hospital in-patient treatment in the UK, a rise of 37% since 1999–2000 [1]. Modern urological surgery has advanced much, both technologically and in its delivery; with developments such as robotic surgery and enhanced recovery. However, despite advancement in minimally invasive techniques, major open surgery will always have a role to play. In addition to this even robotic assisted laparoscopic procedures are still considered ‘major’ or perhaps ‘less major than previously’.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanchia S. Goonewardene
    • 1
  • Raj Persad
    • 2
  1. 1.The Royal Free Hospital and UCLLondonUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.North Bristol NHS TrustBristolUnited Kingdom

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