The Checklist

  • Charles J. PrestigiacomoEmail author


In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) published an important monograph describing the status of surgical procedures and complications worldwide [1]. The authors reported an unexpected high incidence of surgery based on an international data of 56 countries. They estimated between 187 and 281 million surgeries (one operation per every 25 humans) with a major complication rate of 3–22% and a mortality of 04–0.8%, almost amounting to one million people. As they stratified the analysis, the WHO suggested that death rates in some countries after major surgery could be as high as 5–10%. Most importantly, the data suggest that approximately half of all complications in this report were preventable.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurological SurgeryUniversity of Cincinnati College of MedicineCincinnaiUSA

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