Treatment of Arteriovenous Malformations with Cyanoacrylate

  • Matthew D. Alexander
  • Daniel L. Cooke
  • Steven W. HettsEmail author


Embolization of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with acrylates can play an important role in treating these complex lesions. Embolization can be performed with an acceptable safety profile when utilizing proper planning and technique. Heterogeneity among these lesions and treatment decisions and techniques vary dramatically between treating physicians and medical centers. Reported general complication rates vary from 1 to 16%, with permanent morbidity rates of 0.4–12.5% and mortality rates of 0.4–11% [1–21]. Within these reports, rates of ischemic complications range from 0.7 to12.5% [2, 7, 20, 22]. Reported hemorrhage rates range from 2 to 15% [2, 7, 14, 20, 22, 23]. These publications reflect large case series employing different embolic agents, including acrylates, and they reflect a mix of modern and discontinued techniques with higher rates of complication compared to current methods [3].


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew D. Alexander
    • 1
  • Daniel L. Cooke
    • 1
  • Steven W. Hetts
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.UCSF Department of Radiology and Biomedical ImagingSan FranciscoUSA

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