3D CFD Multicomponent Model for Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Particles

  • Muhammad Faizan-Ur-Rab
  • Saden H. Zahiri
  • S. H. Masood
  • M. Jahedi
  • R. Nagarajah
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


Cold spray is a solid state additive manufacturing process in which high-velocity gas is used to accelerate metal particles toward a metallic or non-metallic substrate. After impact, particles deform plastically and consolidate onto the substrate’s surface. Development of a 3D multicomponent model for cold spray assists with the understanding of the complicated events that underlie particle deposition and bond formation. A k-ε type computational fluid dynamics (CFD) multicomponent model has been developed to compute the state of the supersonic gas impinging onto the substrate in the presence of surrounding air. A holistic approach is implemented to determine the gas properties from the stagnation zone, through the nozzle to the substrate surface, as well as the trajectories, velocity and temperature distribution of powder particles accelerated by this flow. The 3D CFD model is a valuable tool for optimizing cold spray process conditions, development of novel materials and nozzle design for cold spray additive manufacturing.


cold spraying titanium particles computational fluid dynamics (CFD) additive manufacturing three dimensional multicomponent model 


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Faizan-Ur-Rab
    • 1
  • Saden H. Zahiri
    • 2
  • S. H. Masood
    • 1
  • M. Jahedi
    • 2
  • R. Nagarajah
    • 1
  1. 1.Swinburne University of TechnologyHawthorn; MelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.CSIRO Manufacturing FlagshipClayton; MelbourneAustralia

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