Application Software in Cloud-Ready Data Centers: A Survey

Part of the Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy book series (SSRI)


The digital transformation of the economy, as well as society in general, is in large part based on data centers’ capabilities to process, store, and transport data. As the range of application requirements, the volume of data and system complexities, as well as security requirements increase, appropriate application system landscapes to support the tasks performed in a data center become crucial to success. Within this chapter we provide an overview on application software used to manage IT service production in data centers. With the advent of cloud computing, data centers increasingly face outside competition on all layers of the IT stack. Cloud service providers, such as Software as a Service companies, may even operate their own data centers. Furthermore, the people who use the investigated application software often themselves undergo an evolution from pure administrative to engineering responsibilities. Lastly, progress in the domain of application software, in general, has influenced application software discussed here. These phenomena are examined in order to compare common practice against competitive advantage of using the software from the presented taxonomy. The presented research has implications for practitioners because it provides an overview on the essential application fields of cloud-ready data centers. Additionally, the chapter contributes to the knowledge base by providing a taxonomy that is derived from a previously conducted case study. The taxonomy may be used in further research, for instance, in application system landscape maturity models.


Data center IT service provider Application software Tool Taxonomy 


  1. Abolhassan, F. (ed.): Der Weg zur modernen IT-Fabrik: Industrialisierung, Automatisierung. Springer, Optimierung (2013)Google Scholar
  2. Andersen-Gott, M., Ghinea, G., Bygstad, B.: Why do commercial companies contribute to open source software? Int. J. Inf. Manag. 32(2), 106–117 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andriotis, P., et al.: Highlighting relationships of a smartphone’s social ecosystem in potentially large investigations. IEEE Trans. Cybernetics. 46(9), 1974–1985 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armbrust, M., et al.: A view of cloud computing. Commun. ACM. 53(4), 50–58 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barr, J.. EC2 Updates: New Medium Instance, 64-bit Ubiquity, SSH Client. Available at: (2012)
  6. Barrett, M., et al.: Service innovation in the digital age: Key contributions and future directions. MIS Q. 39(1), 135–154 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Becker, J. et al.: Industrialization of IT Services: Application of Industrial Concepts and their Implications from the Perspective of IT Service Providers (orig. title: Industrialisierung von IT-Dienstleistungen: Anwendung industrieller Konzepte und deren Auswirkungen aus Sicht von IT-Dienstleistern). In: Bernstein, A., Schwalbe, G. (eds.) Tagungsband der 10. Internationale Tagung Wirtschaftsinformatik, pp. 345–354. AIS Electronic Library, WI. Zurich, Switzerland (2011)Google Scholar
  8. Bergeron, B.: Essentials of Shared Services. Wiley, Hoboken (2002)Google Scholar
  9. Bernstein, D., et al.: Blueprint for the intercloud-protocols and formats for cloud computing interoperability. In Internet and Web Applications and Services, 2009. ICIW’09. Fourth International Conference on. IEEE, 328–336 (2009)Google Scholar
  10. Best, M.L.: Global computing: Thinking outside the continent. Commun. ACM. 57(4), 27–29 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bittman, T.J., Dawson, P., Warrilow, M.: Magic Quadrant for x86 Server Virtualization Infrastructure. Gartner Inc. (2016). StamfordGoogle Scholar
  12. BMC. Remedy AR System API and Integration Interfaces Overview (C, Java, .NET, Web Services, email, Ruby, Jython, VB, direct SQL). Available at: (2017)
  13. Boersen, H. et al., 2012. Strategic choices for data centers. Compact, 0, pp. 3–13Google Scholar
  14. Boos, C.: Entering effectiveness: Approaching the big chance with smart automation. Gartner Newsl. 1(23), (2014)Google Scholar
  15. Bordeleau, F.: Model-Based Engineering: A New Era Based on Papyrus and Open Source Tooling. In Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Open Source Software for Model Driven Engineering, pp. 2–8. Valencia, Spain (2014)Google Scholar
  16. Bosse, S., Splieth, M., Turowski, K.: Multi-objective optimization of IT service availability and costs. Reliability Eng. Syst. Saf. 147, 142–155 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boston Consulting Group. {Digital Transformation}. Available at: (2017)
  18. Botta-Genoulaz, V., Millet, P.: An investigation into the use of ERP Systems in the Service Sector. Int. J. Prod. Econ. 99(1), 202–221 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Botta-Genoulaz, V., Millet, P.-A., Grabot, B.: A survey on the recent research literature on ERP systems. Comput. Ind. 56(6), 510–522 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Die Bundesregierung. Digitale Agenda 2014–2017. (2017) Available at:
  21. Cannon, D.: ITIL – Service Strategy. The Stationery Office, Norwich (2011)Google Scholar
  22. Carr, N.G.: IT doesn’t matter. Educ. Rev. 38, 24–38 (2003)Google Scholar
  23. Cater-Steel, A., McBride, N.: IT service management improvement-actor network perspective. In: ECIS, pp. 1202–1213 (2007)Google Scholar
  24. Chen, I.J., Popovich, K.: Understanding customer relationship management (CRM) people, process and technology. Bus. Process. Manag. J. 9(5), 672–688 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cortada, J.W.: Patterns and practices in how information technology spread around the world. IEEE Ann. Hist. Comput. 30(4), 4–25 (2008)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  26. Cupek, R., et al.: Agent-based manufacturing execution systems for short-series production scheduling. Comput. Ind. 82, 245–258 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dardenne, A., Van Lamsweerde, A., Fickas, S.: Goal-directed requirements acquisition. Sci. Comput. Program. 20(1–2), 3–50 (1993)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. Davenport, T.H.: Mission Critical: Realizing the Promise of Enterprise Systems. Harvard Business School Press, Boston (2000)Google Scholar
  29. Delaet, T., Joosen, W., Van Brabant, B.: A Survey of System Configuration Tools. In: van Drunen, R. (ed.) 24th Large Installation System Administration conference, LISA, USENIX (2010)Google Scholar
  30. Deming, W.E.: Out of the Crisis. MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study, Cambridge (1986)Google Scholar
  31. Desai, N., Bradshaw, R., Lueninghoener, C..: Directing Change Using Bcfg2. In LISA, pp. 215–220 (2006)Google Scholar
  32. Dijkstra, E.W.: The structure of the“THE”-multiprogramming system. Commun. ACM. 11(5), 341–346 (1968)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. Disterer, G.: ISO 20000 for IT. Bus. Inf. Syst. Eng. 1(6), 463–467 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ebert, C., et al.: DevOps. IEEE Softw. 33(3), 94–100 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eisenhardt, K.M.: Building theories from case study research. Acad. Manag. Rev. 14(4), 532–550 (1989)Google Scholar
  36. Pink Elephant: PinkVERIFYTM 2011 Toolsets. Available at: (2017)
  37. Erek, K., Proehl, T., Zarnekow, R.: Managing cloud services with IT service management practices. In: Engineering and Management of IT-Based Service Systems, pp. 67–81. Springer (2014). Berlin, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  38. Esteves, J., Bohórquez, V.W.: An updated ERP systems annotated bibliography: 2001-2005. Commun. Assoc. Inf. Syst. 19(1), 386–446 (2007)Google Scholar
  39. Esteves, J., Pastor, J.: Enterprise resource planning systems research: An annotated bibliography. Commun. Assoc. Inf. Syst. 7(1), 8 (2001)Google Scholar
  40. Finney, S., Corbett, M.: ERP implementation: A compilation and analysis of critical success factors. Bus. Process. Manag. J. 13(3), 329–347 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fletcher, C., Williams, D.P., Wurster, L.F.: Magic Quadrant for Application Release Automation. Gartner Inc. (2016). StamfordGoogle Scholar
  42. Foster, J.C.: Writing Security Tools and Exploits. Syngress (2006). RocklandGoogle Scholar
  43. Fuchs, L., Pernul, G., Sandhu, R.: Roles in information security–a survey and classification of the research area. Comput. Secur. 30(8), 748–769 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ganguli, S., Bhalla, V.: Magic Quadrant for Network Performance Monitoring and Diagnostics. Gartner Inc. (2017). StamfordGoogle Scholar
  45. Gartner. Enterprise Applications. In IT Glossary. (2017a)
  46. Gartner. ITSSM Tools (IT Service Support Management Tools). In IT Glossary. (2017b)
  47. Glohr, C., Kellermann, J., Dörnemann, H.: The Road to a Modern IT Factory. Springer (2014). Berlin, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  48. Gronau, N.: Enterprise Resource Planning – Architecture, Functions and Management of ERP Systems (Original German Title: Enterprise Resource Planning – Architektur, Funktionen und Management von ERP-Systemen). Oldenburg, München (2010)Google Scholar
  49. Guay, M., et al.: Magic Quadrant for Single-Instance ERP for Product-Centric Midmarket Companies. Gartner Inc. (2015). StamfordGoogle Scholar
  50. Haight, C., Silva, F.D.: Magic Quadrant for Application Performance Monitoring Suites. Gartner Inc. (2016). StamfordGoogle Scholar
  51. Hendricks, E.C., Hartmann, T.C.: Evolution of a virtual machine subsystem. IBM Syst. J. 18(1), 111–142 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hernantes, J., Gallardo, G., Serrano, N.: IT infrastructure-monitoring tools. IEEE Softw. 32(4), 88–93 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Herrick, D.R., Metz, L., Crane, A.: Effective zero-cost help desk software. In Proceedings of the 40th annual ACM SIGUCCS conference on User services, ACM, pp. 157–160 (2012)Google Scholar
  54. Hess, T.: Digitization (original German title: Digitalisierung). In: Gronau, N., et al. (eds.) Enzyklopädie der Wirtschaftsinformatik – Online-Lexikon. GITO (2016). PotsdamGoogle Scholar
  55. Hevner, A.R., et al.: Design science in information systems research. MIS Q. 28(1), 75–105 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hintsch, J., Schrödl, H., et al.: Industrialization in Cloud Computing with Enterprise Systems: Order-to-Cash Automation for SaaS Products. In Thomas O., Teuteberg F. (eds.) Tagungsband der 12. Internationale Tagung Wirtschaftsinformatik. pp. 61–75 WI. Münster, Germany. (2015a)
  57. Hintsch, J., Kramer, F., Turowski, K.: ERP Systems’ Usage in the German IT Service Industry: An Exploratory Multi-case Study. In IEEE 19th International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC), pp. 169–178 (2015b)Google Scholar
  58. Hintsch, J., et al.: The Application System Landscapes of IT Service Providers: A Multi Case Study. In Li G., Yu Y. (eds.) Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Enterprise Systems (ES2016). Los Alamitos, California, Washington, Tokyo: IEEE, pp. 122–131 (2016)Google Scholar
  59. Hochstein, A., Zarnekow, R., Brenner, W.: ITIL as common practice reference model for IT service management: formal assessment and implications for practice. In Cheung W. K. Hsu J. (eds.) International Conference on e-Technology, e-Commerce and e-Service. EEE. Hong Kong, China: IEEE, pp. 704–710 (2005)Google Scholar
  60. Hochstein, A., et al.: IT industrialization: What is it? (original German title: IT-Industrialisierung: Was ist das?). Computerwoche. 15(3), 5 (2007)Google Scholar
  61. Hofmann, G.R.: Interview with Bettina Uhlich on IT controlling. Bus. Inf. Syst. Eng. 1(3), 266–268 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hunnebeck, L.: ITIL – Service Design. The Stationery Office, Norwich (2011)Google Scholar
  63. Mirantis Inc: Stackalytics for OpenStack Pike based on Reviews Metric. Available at: (2017)
  64. Jacobs, F.R., Watson, F.C.: Enterprise resource planning (ERP)—a brief history. J. Oper. Manag. 25(2), 357–363 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Josuttis, N.: SOA in Practice: the art of Distributed System Design. O’Reilly Media, Inc, Sebastopol (2007)Google Scholar
  66. Kanies, L.: Puppet: Next-Generation Configuration Management. ;login:, 31(1), pp.19–25 (2006)Google Scholar
  67. Kapitsaki, G.M., Kramer, F., Tselikas, N.D.: Automating the license compatibility process in open source software with SPDX. J. Syst. Softw. 131:386–401 (2017)Google Scholar
  68. Kountouridou, N., Antoniou, P., Stamelos, I.: A comprehensive approach for implementing an open source ERP in a Greek industry. In Proceedings of the 20th Pan-Hellenic Conference on Informatics. PCI ‘16. Patras, Greece: ACM, pp. 23:1–23:5 (2016)Google Scholar
  69. Krcmar, H.: Informationsmanagement. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kreizman, G., Wynne, N.: Magic Quadrant for Managed Security Services. Worldwide, Gartner Inc (2015)Google Scholar
  71. Kreizman, G., Wynne, N.: Magic Quadrant for Identity and Access Management as a Service. Worldwide, Gartner Inc (2016)Google Scholar
  72. Lainhart, J.W., et al. (eds.): COBIT 5 – Enabling Processes. ISACA, Rolling Meadows (2012)Google Scholar
  73. Laplante, P.A., Zhang, J., Voas, J.: What’s in a name? Distinguishing between SaaS and SOA. IT Professional. 10(3), 46–50 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Laudon, K.C., Laudon, J.P.: Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm, 8th edn. Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic, Princeton (2005)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  75. Leymann, F., et al.: Native Cloud Applications: Why Virtual Machines, Images and Containers Miss the Point! In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Service Science (CLOSER 2016). SciTePress, pp. 7–15 (2016)Google Scholar
  76. Lloyd, V.: ITIL – Continual Service Improvement. The Stationery Office, Norwich (2011)Google Scholar
  77. Marrone, M., et al.: IT service management: A cross-national study of ITIL adoption. Commun. Assoc. Inf. Syst. 34(49), 865–893 (2014)Google Scholar
  78. Matchett, C., Lord, K., Bandopadhyay, T.: Magic Quadrant for IT Service Support Management Tools. Gartner Inc. (2015). StamfordGoogle Scholar
  79. McGregor, M.: Magic Quadrant for Enterprise Architecture Tools. Gartner Inc. (2016). StamfordGoogle Scholar
  80. McIlroy, M.D.: Mass produced software components. In Naur P., Randell B.,( eds.) Software Engineering. Scientific Affairs Division of NATO. (1969). BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  81. Mell, P., Grance, T.: The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Miller, S.W.: Mass storage systems and evolution of data center architectures: Guest Editor’s introduction. Computer. 7(15), 16–19 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mobus, G.E. & Kalton, M.C., 2015. Systems Engineering. In Principles of Systems Science. Springer, pp. 699–731. Berlin, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  84. Møller, C.: ERP II: A conceptual framework for next-generation enterprise systems? J. Enterp. Inf. Manag. 18(4), 483–497 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Naur, P.: Programming by action clusters. BIT Numer. Math. 9(3), 250–258 (1969)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  86. Naur, P., Randell, B. (eds.): Software Engineering. NATO Science Committee, Garmisch (1969)Google Scholar
  87. Nelson, L.E., Staten, J., Williamson, K.: State Of Cloud Platform Standards: Q1 2014 – OpenStack Steps Forward To Become The New De Facto Model. Available at:−/E-res112621 (2014)
  88. Nerur, S., Mahapatra, R., Mangalaraj, G.: Challenges of migrating to agile methodologies. Commun. ACM. 48(5), 72–78 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Oesterreich, T.D., Teuteberg, F.: Understanding the implications of digitisation and automation in the context of industry 4.0: A triangulation approach and elements of a research agenda for the construction industry. Comput. Ind. 83, 121–139 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. OMG: OMG Systems Modeling Language. Version 1.4, (2015)Google Scholar
  91. Palma, D., Rutkowski, M., Spatzier, T.: TOSCA Simple Profile in YAML Version 1.0, OASIS Committee. Available at: (2015)
  92. Papazoglou, M.P., van den Heuvel, W.-J.: Service oriented architectures: Approaches, technologies and research issues. VLDB. 16(3), 389–415 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Parnas, D.L.: On the criteria to be used in decomposing systems into modules. Commun. ACMs. 15(12), 1053–1058 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Penzel, H.-G.: Vorgehensweise zur Industrialisierung des Bankbetriebs. In D. Bartmann, ed. Die Industrialisierung des Bankbetriebs, pp. 95–114. Wiley (2005). HobokenGoogle Scholar
  95. Pollard, C.E., Gupta, D., Satzinger, J.W.: Integrating SDLC and ITSM to’servitize’systems development. AMCIS 2009 Proceedings, p.415 (2009)Google Scholar
  96. Porter, M.E.: Competitive Advantage – Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. The Free Press, New York (1985)Google Scholar
  97. Richter, C., Schaaf, T.: A maturity model for tool landscapes of IT service providers. In Integrated Network Management (IM), 2011 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on. IEEE, pp. 1050–1057 (2011). PiscatawayGoogle Scholar
  98. Romero, D., Vernadat, F.: Enterprise information systems state of the art: Past, present and future trends. Comput. Ind. 79, 3–13 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rowe, D.C., Moses, S., Wilkinson, L.: Systems Administration at the Graduate Level: Defining the Undefined. In Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference on Information Technology Education. ACM, pp. 77–82 (2015). New YorkGoogle Scholar
  100. ServiceNow. Product Documentation: List of Available Integrations. Available at: (2015)
  101. Spinellis, D.: Don’t install software by hand. IEEE Softw. 29(4), 86–87 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Spring, J.: Monitoring cloud computing by layer, part 1. IEEE Secur. Privacy. 9(2), 66–68 (2011a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Spring, J.: Monitoring cloud computing by layer, part 2. IEEE Secur. Privacy. 9(3), 52–55 (2011b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Talligent. 2016 State of OpenStack Report. (2016)Google Scholar
  105. Talwar, V., et al.: Approaches for service deployment. IEEE Internet Comput. 9(2), 70–80 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. The Open Group. ArchiMate, Version 3.0, (2016)Google Scholar
  107. Thomas, D.R.E.: Strategy is different in service businesses. Harv. Bus. Rev. 56, 158–165 (1978)Google Scholar
  108. Tucker, R., et al.: Connected OFCity: Technology innovations for a Smar City project [invited]. IEEE/OSA J. Optical Commun. Networking. 9(2), A245–A255 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. USENIX. LISA Conferences. Available at: (2017)
  110. Venkatesh, V., Davis, F.D.: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal field studies. Manag. Sci. 46(2), 186–204 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wettinger, J. et al.: Middleware-oriented deployment automation for cloud applications. IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing, PP(99), pp. 1–1 (2016)Google Scholar
  112. Wittgreffe, J., Trollope, C., Midwinter, T.: The next generation of systems to support corporate grade ICT products and solutions. BT Technol. J. 24(4), 93–112 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wu, M.-S., Huang, S.-J., Chen, L.-W.: The preparedness of critical success factors of IT service management and its effect on performance. Serv. Ind. J. 31(8), 1219–1235 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yazici, A., Mishra, A., Kontogiorgis, P.: IT service management (ITSM) education and research: Global view. Int. J. Eng. Educ. 31(4), 1071–1080 (2015)Google Scholar
  115. Youseff, L., Butrico, M., Da Silva, D.: Toward a unified ontology of cloud computing. In Grid Computing Environments Workshop, 2008. GCE’08. IEEE, pp. 1–10 (2008). PiscatawayGoogle Scholar
  116. Zarnekow, R., Brenner, W.: A Product-Based Information Management Approach. In R. Claudio U.and Mercurio Ciborra et al., eds. Proceedigns of the 11th European Conference on Information Systems. ECIS, pp. 2251–2263. AIS Electronic Library, Naples (2003)Google Scholar
  117. Zhu, L., et al.: Achieving Reliable High Frequency Releases in Cloud Environments. Software, IEEE (2015). PiscatawayGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Magdeburg Research and Competence Cluster for Very Large Business Applications, Faculty of Computer ScienceOtto-von-Guericke University MagdeburgMagdeburgGermany

Personalised recommendations