Advertisement

Performance Management: An Analytical Framework

  • Stephen Jones
Chapter
  • 571 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter focuses on current understandings of performance management in the implementation of policy, with particular reference to climate initiatives. The chapter draws on research examining international experience in the development and implementation of performance systems. The focus will be on presenting the theoretical anchors necessary for effective performance management to establish an analytical framework to examine management practices for implementing climate policy by city governments. The framework will provide an analytical tool to help place city governments within a model of engagement with performance management in the implementation of climate policy. The model will help to establish insights for city governments seeking improvements to management and the measurable achievement of desired climate outcomes.

References

  1. Ammons, D. (2015, December). Getting Real About Performance Management: Using Performance Information to Improve Services Is Key. Public Management. ICMA Publications, PM Magazine. http://icma.org/en/Article/106489/Getting_Real_About_Performance_Management
  2. Ammons, D. N., & Roenigk, D. J. (2015). Performance Management in Local Government: Is Practice Influenced by Doctrine? Public Performance & Management Review, 38(3), 514–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Argyris, C., & Schön, D. A. (1997). Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action perspective. Reis, 77/78, 345–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bains, M. A. (1972) The New Local Authorities: Management and Structure, The Bains Report. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  5. Behn, R. D. (2002). The Psychological Barriers to Performance Management: Or Why Isn’t Everyone Jumping on the Performance-Management Bandwagon? Public Performance & Management Review, 26(1), 5–25.Google Scholar
  6. Behn, R. D. (2003). Why Measure Performance? Different Purposes Require Different Measures. Public Administration Review, 63(5), 586–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Betsill, M. M., & Bulkeley, H. (2006). Cities and the Multilevel Governance of Global Climate Change. Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 12(2), 141–159.Google Scholar
  8. Betsill, M., & Bulkeley, H. (2007). Looking Back and Thinking Ahead: A Decade of Cities and Climate Change Research. Local Environment, 12(5), 447–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bevan, G., & Hood, C. (2006). What’s Measured Is What Matters: Targets and Gaming in the English Public Health Care System. Public Administration, 84(3), 517–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bianchi, C., & Williams, D. W. (2015). Applying System Dynamics Modelling to Foster a Cause-and-Effect Perspective in Dealing with Behavioural Distortions Associated With a City’s Performance Measurement Programs. Public Performance & Management Review, 38(3), 395–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bohte, J., & Meier, K. J. (2000). The Marble Cake: Introducing Federalism to the Government Growth Equation. Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 30(3), 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bouckaert, G., & Halligan, J. (2008). Managing Performance: International Comparisons. Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Bowen, S., & Zwi, A. B. (2005). Pathways to “Evidence-Informed” Policy and Practice: A Framework for Action. PLoS Med, 2(7).Google Scholar
  14. Boyko, C. T., Gaterell, M. R., Barber, A. R., Brown, J., Bryson, J. R., Butler, D., Caputo, S., Caserio, M., Coles, R., Cooper, R., & Davies, G. (2012). Benchmarking Sustainability in Cities: The Role of Indicators and Future Scenarios. Global Environmental Change, 22(1), 245–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bryson, J. M., Berry, F. S., & Yang, K. (2007). The State of Public Strategic Management Research: A Selective Literature Review and Set of Future Directions. The American Review of Public Administration, 40(5), 495–521.Google Scholar
  16. Bulkeley, H., & Betsill, M. M. (2013). Revisiting the Urban Politics of Climate Change. Environmental Politics, 22(1), 136–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Christensen, T., & Lægreid, P. (2010). Increased Complexity in Public Organizations—The Challenges of Combining NPM and Post-NPM. In P. Laegreid & K. Verhoest (Eds.), Governance of Public Sector Organizations: Proliferation, Autonomy and Performance (pp. 255–275). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davis, R. S., & Stazyk, E. C. (2015). Examining the Links Between Senior Managers’ Engagement in Networked Environments and Goal and Role Ambiguity. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. doi  10.1093/jopart/muv023.
  19. Dietz, T., Dan, A., & Shwom, R. (2007). Support for Climate Change Policy: Social Psychological and Social Structural Influences. Rural Sociology, 72(2), 185–214. doi  10.1526/003601107781170026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Douglas, A., Kirk, D., Brennan, C., & Ingram, A. (1999). Maximizing the Benefits of ISO 9000 Implementation. Total Quality Management, 10(4–5), 507–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Erickson, P., Lazarus, M., Chandler, C., & Schultz, S. (2013). Technologies, Policies and Measures for GHG Abatement at the Urban Scale. Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management, 3(1–2), 37–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gahan, P., Adamovic, M., Bevitt, A., Harley, B., Healy, J., Olsen, J. E., & Theilacker, M. (2016). Leadership at Work: Do Australian Leaders Have What It Takes? Melbourne: Centre for Workplace Leadership, University of Melbourne. workplaceleadership.com.au/sal
  23. Garren, S., & Brinkmann, R. (2012). Linking Greenhouse Gas Emissions to Greenhouse Gas Reduction Policies at the Local Government Level in Florida. Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management, 2(2–3), 146–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gordon, G. L. (2013). Strategic Planning for Local Government. ICMA Publishing.Google Scholar
  25. Gordon, J., & Johnson, C. (2017). The Orchestration of Global Urban Climate Governance: Conducting Power in the Post-Paris Climate Regime. Environmental Politics, 26(4), 694–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Head, B. W. (2013). Evidence-Based Policymaking–Speaking Truth to Power? Australian Journal of Public Administration, 72(4), 397–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Heinrich, C. J. (2002). Outcomes–Based Performance Management in the Public Sector: Implications for Government Accountability and Effectiveness. Public Administration Review, 62(6), 712–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hezri, A. A., & Dovers, S. R. (2006). Sustainability Indicators, Policy and Governance: Issues for Ecological Economics. Ecological Economics, 60(1), 86–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoornweg, D., Sugar, L., & Trejos Gomez, C. L. (2011). Cities and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Moving Forward. Environment and Urbanization, 23(1), 207–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hupe, P., & Hill, M. (2007). Street-Level Bureaucracy and Public Accountability. Public Administration, 85(2), 279–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hvidman, U., & Andersen, S. (2014). Impact of Performance Management in Public and Private Organizations. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 24(1), 35–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ibrahim, N., Sugar, L., Hoornweg, D., & Kennedy, C. (2012). Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Cities: Comparison of International Inventory Frameworks. Local Environment, 17(2), 223–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2012). Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation: Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254998982_Managing_the_risks_of_extreme_events_and_disasters_to_advance_climate_change_adaptation_Special_report_of_the_Intergovernmental_Panel_on_Climate_Change_IPCC
  34. Jakobsen, M. L., & Mortensen, P. B. (2016). Rules and the Doctrine of Performance management. Public Administration Review, 76(2), 302–312. doi  10.1111/puar.12409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jones, S. (2015). ‘If You Can Make it Here, You Can Make it Anywhere’: Performance Management and PlaNYC Climate Change Initiatives. Regional Studies. doi  10.1080/00343404.2015.1052389.
  36. Jung, C. S. (2013). Organizational Goal Ambiguity and Job Satisfaction in the Public Sector. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. doi  10.1093/jopart/mut020.
  37. Jung, C. S., & Lee, G. (2013). Goals, Strategic Planning, and Performance in Government Agencies. Public Management Review, 15(6), 787–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Keirstead, J., & Schulz, N. B. (2010). London and Beyond: Taking a Closer Look at urban Energy Policy. Energy Policy, 38(9), 4870–4879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kelman, S., & Friedman, J. N. (2009). Performance Improvement and Performance Dysfunction: An Empirical Examination of Distortionary Impacts of the Emergency Room Wait-Time Target in the English National Health Service. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 19(4), 917–946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kennedy, C., Demoullin, S., & Mohareb, E. (2012). Cities Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Energy policy, 49, 774–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kitchin, R. (2014). The Real-Time City? Big Data and Smart Urbanism. GeoJournal, 79(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kroll, A. (2015). Explaining the Use of Performance Information by Public Managers: A Planned-Behaviour Approach. The American Review of Public Administration, 45(2), 201–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Laurian, L., & Crawford, J. (2016). Sustainability in the USA and New Zealand: Explaining and Addressing the Implementation Gap in Local Government. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 59(12), 2124–2144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation: A 35-Year Odyssey. American Psychologist, 57(9), 705–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lutsey, N., & Sperling, D. (2008). America’s Bottom-Up Climate Change Mitigation Policy. Energy Policy, 36(2), 673–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McCright, A. M., & Dunlap, R. E. (2003). Defeating Kyoto: The Conservative Movement’s Impact on US Climate Change Policy. Social Problems, 50(3), 348–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McDonald, B., Rogers, P., & Kefford, B. (2003). Teaching People to Fish? Building the Evaluation Capability of Public Sector Organizations. Evaluation, 9(1), 9–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Measham, T. G., Preston, B. L., Brooke, C., Smith, T. F., Morrison, C., Withycombe, G., & Gorddard, R. (2010, June). Adapting to Climate Change Through Local Municipal Planning: Barriers and Opportunities. International Climate Change Adaptation Conference, Broadbeach, Australia, 29.Google Scholar
  49. Mirvis, P., & Googins, B. (2006). Stages of Corporate Citizenship. California Management Review, 48(2), 104–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Moser, S. C. (2006). Talk of the City: Engaging Urbanites on Climate Change. Environmental Research Letters, 1(1). doi  10.1088/1748-9326/1/1/014006.
  51. Moser, S. C., & Dilling, L. (2011). Communicating Climate Change: Closing the Science-Action Gap. In R. Norgaard, D. Scholsberg, & J. Dryzek (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society (pp. 161–174). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Moynihan, D. P. (2005). Why and How Do State Governments Adopt and Implement “Managing for Results” Reforms? Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 15(2), 219–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Moynihan, D. P. (2008). The Dynamics of Performance Management: Constructing Information and Reform. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Moynihan, D. P. (2009). Through a Glass, Darkly: Understanding the Effects of Performance Regimes. Public Performance & Management Review, 32(4), 592–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moynihan, D. P., & Lavertu, S. (2012). Does Involvement in Performance Management Routines Encourage Performance Information Use? Evaluating GPRA and PART. Public Administration Review, 72(4), 592–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moynihan, D. P., & Pandey, S. K. (2004). Testing How Management Matters in an Era of Government by Performance Management. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 15(3), 421–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moynihan, D. P., Pandey, S. K., & Wright, B. E. (2011). Setting the Table: How Transformational Leadership Fosters Performance Information use. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 22(1), 143–164. doi  10.1093/jopart/mur024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. OECD. (2009). Measuring Government Activity. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  59. Osborne, D., & Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming Government. Reading, MA: Adison Wesley Public Comp.Google Scholar
  60. Pandey, S. K., & Garnett, J. L. (2006). Exploring Public Sector Communication Performance: Testing a Model and Drawing Implications. Public Administration Review, 66(1), 37–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pandey, S. K., & Rainey, H. G. (2006). Public Managers’ Perceptions of Organizational Goal Ambiguity: Analyzing Alternative Models. International Public Management Journal, 9(2), 85–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. PLANYC (City of New York). (2007). PlaNYC: A Greener, Greater New York. New York City Mayor’s Office of Long Term Planning and Sustainability, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  63. Poister, T. H., & Streib, G. (2005). Elements of Strategic Planning and Management in Municipal Government: Status After Two Decades. Public Administration Review, 65(1), 45–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pollitt, C., & Bouckaert, G. (2004). Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Rainey, H. G., & Bozeman, B. (2000). Comparing Public and Private Organizations: Empirical Research and the Power of the a Priori. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 10(2), 447–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ramaswami, A., Hillman, T., Janson, B., Reiner, M., & Thomas, G. (2008). A Demand-Centered, Hybrid Life-Cycle Methodology for City-Scale Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Environmental Science and Technology, 42(17), 6455–6461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sanger, M. B. (2008). From Measurement to Management: Breaking Through the Barriers to State and Local Performance. Public Administration Review, 68(s1), 570–585.Google Scholar
  68. Sanger, M. B. (2013). Does Measuring Performance Lead to Better Performance? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 32(1), 185–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schiller, B. (2016). Measuring What Exactly Will Be Destroyed as New York’s Sea LEVELS Rise. https://www.fastcompany.com/3060604/measuring-what-exactly-will-be-destroyed-as-new-yorks-sea-levels-rise
  70. Schultze, C. L. (1968). The Politics and Economics of Public Spending. Washington: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
  71. Sippel, M. (2011). Urban GHG Inventories, Target Setting and Mitigation Achievements: How German Cities Fail to Outperform Their Country. Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management, 1(1), 55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stazyk, E. C., & Goerdel, H. T. (2011). The Benefits of Bureaucracy: Public Managers’ Perceptions of Political Support, Goal Ambiguity, and Organizational Effectiveness. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 21(4), 645–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sterck, M., & Scheers, B. (2006). Trends in Performance Budgeting in Seven OECD Countries. Public Performance & Management Review, 30(1), 47–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tucker, D. (1997). From Administration to Management. In B. Dollery & N. Marshall (Eds.), Australian Local Government: Reform and Renewal (pp. 69–88). Melbourne: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  75. Turner, S., Fünfgeld, H., & Robertson, S. (2016). Strategies for Embedding Climate Change Adaptation in Public Sector Organisations: A Review of the Academic and Grey Literature. Melbourne: RMIT University Centre for Urban Research.Google Scholar
  76. UNFCCC. (2007). Synthesis and Assessment Report of the Greenhouse Gas Inventories Submitted in 2006. Note by Secretariat, FCCC/WEB/SAI/2006 28 June 2007.Google Scholar
  77. Van Dooren, W., Bouckaert, G., & Halligan, J. (2010). Performance Management in the Public Sector. Hoboken: Routledge.Google Scholar
  78. Walker, R. M., Avellaneda, C. N., & Berry, F. S. (2011). Exploring the Diffusion of Innovation Among High and Low Innovative Localities: A Test of the Berry and Berry Model. Public Management Review, 13(1), 95–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Whitmarsh, L., Lorenzoni, I., & O’Neill, S. (2012). Engaging the Public with Climate Change: Behaviour Change and Communication. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Jones
    • 1
  1. 1.University of QueenslandCoorparooAustralia

Personalised recommendations