Marginalized Racial and Ethnic Adults with Disabilities in Rural Communities: The Role of Cultural Competence and Social Justice

  • Debra A. HarleyEmail author
  • Brenda Cartwright


Historically marginalized groups in the United States make up vast and complex groups. Although this chapter discusses historically marginalized groups broadly, we acknowledge that these groups have distinct histories, cultural contexts, and sociopolitical transitions. The intent of this chapter is to explore VR service responsiveness to persons with disabilities from historically marginalized groups in rural, frontier, and territory (RFT) settings. The discussion focuses on attitudes toward disability, access to and quality of VR services, counselor-client working alliance, counselor cultural competence, and employment outcomes. Recommendations are offered to improve service outcomes.


Ethnic minority Racial minority Marginalized Disability People of color Rural American Indian Asian American Black/African American Hispanic/Latino American Pacific Islander Alaskan Native 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Early Childhood, Special Education, and Rehabilitation CounselingUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Rehabilitation Counseling, C024 C Anderson CenterWinston Salem State UniversityWinston SalemUSA

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