Advertisement

Introduction: The Puzzle of Managed Migration

  • Erica Consterdine
Chapter

Abstract

The introduction establishes the book’s central puzzle: why do governments pursue expansive immigration policies. The chapter briefly outlines the case study and posits that the Labour government’s policy change was puzzling for at least two reasons. First, the existing political science literature has often emphasised the ‘path dependent’ character of immigration policy in Britain and indeed elsewhere (Hansen, Citizenship and Immigration in Post-war Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000; Tichenor, Dividing Lines: The Politics of Immigration Control in America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002). Second, as the Labour government’s liberalisation of immigration policy went against public opinion, there was no electoral dividend in expanding. The chapter goes on to argue for the relevance of the nation state in immigration policymaking before briefly reviewing the three main explanations for policy liberalisation. It ends with a chapter-by-chapter overview of the contents of the book.

References

  1. Balch, A. (2010). Managing Labour Migration in Europe: Ideas, Knowledge and Policy Change. Manchester: Manchester University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bale, T. (1999). Sacred Cows and Common Sense: The Symbolic Statecraft and Political Culture of the British Labour Party. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Bale, T. (2008). Turning Round the Telescope. Centre-right Parties and Immigration and Integration Policy in Europe. Journal of European Public Policy, 15(3), 315–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bale, T. (2014). Putting It Right? The Labour Party’s Big Shift on Immigration Since 2010. The Political Quarterly, 85(3), 296–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bale, T., Green-Pedersen, C., Krouwel, A., Luther, K. R., & Sitter, N. (2010). If You Can’t Beat Them, Join Them? Explaining Social Democratic Responses to the Challenge from the Populist Radical Right in Western Europe. Political Studies, 58(3), 410–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beckett, M. (2016). Labour Party: Learning the Lessons from Defeat Taskforce Report. London: Labour Party.Google Scholar
  7. Béland, D. (2005). Ideas and Social Policy: An Institutionalist Perspective. Social Policy and Administrative, 39(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berman, S. (1998). The Social Democratic Moment: Ideas and Politics in the Making of Interwar Europe. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Blair, T. (2003, January 7). Prime Minister’s Address to British Ambassadors. London. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2003/jan/07/foreignpolicy.speeches. Accessed on 10 Mar 2011.
  10. Blinder, S., & Allen, W. (2016). UK Public Opinion Towards Immigration: Overall Attitudes and Levels of Concern. Oxford: Migration Observatory. http://www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/resources/briefings/uk-public-opinion-toward-immigration-overall-attitudes-and-level-of-concern/. Accessed 24 Feb 2017.
  11. Boswell, C. (2007). Theorizing Migration Policy: Is There a Third Way? International Migration Review, 41(1), 75–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burnstein, P., & Linton, A. (2002). The Impact of Political Parties, Interest Groups and Social Movement Organizations on Public Policy: Some Recent Evidence and Theoretical Concerns. Social Forces, 81(2), 341–408.Google Scholar
  13. Carey, S., & Geddes, A. (2010). Less Is More: Immigration and European Integration at the 2010 General Election. Parliamentary Affairs, 63(4), 849–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Castles, S. (2004). The Factors That Make and Unmake Immigration Policies. International Migration Review, 38(3), 852–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Castles, S., & Miller, M. (2003). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  16. Caviedes, A. A. (2010). Prying Open Fortress Europe: The Turn to Sectoral Labor Migration. Lanham/Plymouth: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  17. Cerna, L. (2009). The Varieties of High-Skilled Immigration Policies: Coalitions and Policy Outputs in Advanced Industrial Countries. Journal of European Public Policy, 16(1), 144–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Citrin, J., Green, D. P., Muste, C., & Wong, C. (1997). Public Opinion Toward Immigration Reform: The Role of Economic Motivations. The Journal of Politics, 59(3), 858–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cornelius, W., Tsuda, T., Martin, P., & Hollifield, J. (1994). Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Cornelius, W., Tsuda, T., Martin, P., & Hollifield, J. (2006). Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Cruddas, J. (2016). What We Can Learn from Labour’s Crushing Election Defeat. Labourlist [Online]. http://labourlist.org/2016/05/labours-future-what-we-can-learn-from-the-election-loss/. Accessed on 13 Jan 2017.
  22. Dennison, J., & Goodwin, M. (2015). Immigration, Issue Ownership and the Rise of UKIP. Parliamentary Affairs, 68(suppl 1), 168–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Downs, A. (1957). An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  24. Duffy, B. (2014). Perceptions and Reality: Ten Things We Should Know About Attitudes to Immigration in the UK. The Political Quarterly, 85(3), 259–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Duffy, B., & Frere-Smith, T. (2014). Perceptions and Reality: Public Attitudes to Immgiration. London: Ipsos Mori. https://www.ipsos-mori.com/DownloadPublication/1634_sri-perceptions-and-reality-immigration-report-2013.pdf. Accessed 13 Dec 2016.Google Scholar
  26. Ellermann, A. (2015). Do Policy Legacies Matter? Past and Present Guest Worker Recruitment in Germany. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41(8), 1235–1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Evans, G., & Chzhen, K. (2013). Explaining Voters’ Defection from Labour Over the 2005–10 Electoral Cycle: Leadership, Economics and the Rising Importance of Immigration. Political Studies, 61(1 suppl), 138–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fabian Society. (2017). Stuck: How Labour Is Too Weak to Win, and Too Strong to Die. London: Fabian Society [Online]. Available from http://www.fabians.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Stuck-Fabian-Society-analysis-paper.pdf. Accessed on 31 Jan 2017.
  29. Finch, T., & Goodhart, D. (2010). Introduction. In T. Finch & D. Goodhart (Eds.), Immigration Under Labour (pp. 3–10). London: IPPR.Google Scholar
  30. Freeman, G. (1979). Immigrant Labor and Racial Conflict in Industrial Societies: The French and British Experience, 1945–1975. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Freeman, G. (1994). Commentary. In W. Cornelius, T. Tsuda, P. Martin, & J. Hollifield (Eds.), Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective (pp. 297–303). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Freeman, G. (1995). Modes of Immigration Politics in Liberal Democratic States. International Migration Review, 29(4), 881–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Freeman, G. (2006). National Models, Policy Types, and the Politics of Immigration in Liberal Democracies. West European Politics, 29(2), 227–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Geddes, A., & Tonge, J. (2015). Britain Votes 2015. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Givens, T., & Luedtke, A. (2005). European Immigration Policies in Comparative Perspective: Issue Salience, Partisanship and Immigrant Rights. Comparative European Politics, 3(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Guiraudon, V. (2000). European Integration and Migration Policy: Vertical Policy-Making as Venue Shopping. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 38(2), 251–271.Google Scholar
  37. Guiraudon, V., & Lahav, G. (2000). A Reappraisal of the State Sovereignty Debate the Case of Migration Control. Comparative Political Studies, 33(2), 163–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hall, P. A., & Taylor, R. C. (1996). Political Science and the Three New Institutionalisms. Political Studies, 44(5), 936–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hampshire, J. (2013). The Politics of Immigration. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  40. Hansen, R. (2000). Citizenship and Immigration in Post-war Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Hansen, R. (2014). Great Britain. In J. Hollifield, P. L. Martin, & P. M. Orrenius (Eds.), Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective (pp. 199–220). Stanford: Stanford Press.Google Scholar
  42. Hay, C. (2006). Constructivist Institutionalism. In R. A. W. Rhodes, S. A. Binder, & B. A. Rockman (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions (pp. 56–75). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Hay, C., & Wincott, D. (1998). Structure, Agency and Historical Institutionalism. Political Studies, 46(5), 951–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hinnfors, J., Spehar, A., & Bucken-Knapp, G. (2012). The Missing Factor: Why Social Democracy Can Lead to Restrictive Immigration Policy. Journal of European Public Policy, 19(4), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hollifield, J. (2004). The Emerging Migration State. International Migration Review, 38(3), 885–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hollifield, J. F., Hunt, V. F., & Tichenor, D. J. (2008). The Liberal Paradox: Immigrants, Markets and Rights in the United States. SMU Law Review, 61, 67–98.Google Scholar
  47. Home Office. (1999). ASYLUM STATISTICS UNITED KINGDOM 1998 By Madeleine Watson and Rod McGregor. Web Archives. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs/hosb1099.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2017.
  48. Imbeau, L. M., Pétry, F., & Lamari, M. (2001). Left–Right Party Ideology and Government Policies: A Meta–Analysis. European Journal of Political Research, 40(1), 1–29.Google Scholar
  49. Ipsos-Mori. (2015). Issues Facing Britain: August 2015 Issues Index. Available from: https://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/researcharchive/3614/EconomistIpsos-MORI-August-2015-Issues-Index.aspx. Accessed 15 Sept 2015.
  50. Ireland, P. (2004). Becoming Europe: Immigration, Integration and the Welfare State. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ivarsflaten, E. (2005). Threatened by Diversity: Why Restrictive Asylum and Immigration Policies Appeal to Western Europeans. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion & Parties, 15(1), 21–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jacobson, D. (1996). Rights Across Borders. Baltimore/London: The John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  53. John, P. (1998). Analysing Public Policy. London/New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  54. Jones, B. D., & Baumgartner, F. R. (2004). Representation and Agenda Setting. Policy Studies Journal, 32(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Joppke, C. (1998). Why Liberal States Accept Unwanted Immigration. World Politics, 50(2), 266–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jupp, J. (1993). Perspectives on the Politics of Immigration. In J. Jupp & M. Kabala (Eds.), The Politics of Australian Immigration (pp. 243–255). Canberra: Bureau of Immigration Research.Google Scholar
  57. Kaye, R. (2001). An Analysis of Press Representation of Refugees and Asylum-Seekers in the United Kingdom in the 1990s. Media and Migration: Constructions of Mobility and Difference, 8, 53.Google Scholar
  58. Kingdon, J. (1995). Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  59. Lahav, G. (1997). Ideological and Party Constraints on Immigration Attitudes in Europe. Journal of Common Market Studies, 35(3), 377–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Layton-Henry, Z. (1994). Britain: The Would-Be Zero Immigration Country. In Immigration: A Global Perspective (pp. 273–295). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. March, J. G., & Olsen, J. P. (2006). Elaborating the “New Institutionalism”. In R. A. W. Rhodes, S. A. Binder, & B. A. Rockman (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions (pp. 3–23). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. May, T. (2017, January 20). Brexit Speech [Online]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-38687842. Accessed 22 Jan 2017.
  63. McLaren, L., & Johnson, M. (2007). Resources, Group Conflict and Symbols: Explaining Anti-immigration Hostility in Britain. Political Studies, 55(4), 709–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Menz, G. (2008). The Political Economy of Managed Migration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Meyers, E. (2000). Theories of International Immigration Policy—A Comparative Analysis. International Migration Review, 34(4), 1245–1282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mudde, C. (2007). The Populist Radical Right in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Norris, P. (2005). Radical Right: Voters and Parties in the Electoral Market. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Odmalm, P. (2014). The Party Politics of Immigration and the EU. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. ONS (Office National Statistics). (2006). International Migration (No. 33). London: ONS.Google Scholar
  70. ONS (Office National Statistics). (2012). 2011 Census, Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England and Wales. Available from: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census/key-statistics-for-local-authorities-in-england-and-wales/index.html. Accessed 11 Nov 2013.
  71. ONS (Office National Statistics). (2014, November). Migration Statistics Quarterly Report: November 2014. London: ONS. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/internationalmigration/bulletins/migrationstatisticsquarterlyreport/2015-06-30. Accessed on 20 Dec 2016.
  72. Portes, J. (2016). Immigration—The Way Forward. In R. E. Baldwin (Ed.), Brexit Beckons: Thinking Ahead by Leading Economists (pp. 105–111). London: CEPR press.Google Scholar
  73. Saggar, S. (2003). Immigration and the Politics of Public Opinion. Political Quarterly, 74(1), 178–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sassen, S. (1996). Losing Control?: Sovereignty in an Age of Globalization. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Schmidt, M. (1996). When Parties Matter: A Review of the Possibilities and Limits of Partisan Influence on Public Policy. European Journal of Political Research, 30(2), 155–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Soysal, Y. N. (1994). Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Tichenor, D. J. (2002). Dividing Lines: The Politics of Immigration Control in America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Triadafilopoulos, T., & Zaslove, A. (2006). Influencing Migration Policy from Inside: Political Parties. In M. Giugni & F. Passy (Eds.), Dialogues on Migration Policy (pp. 171–193). Oxford: Lexignton Books.Google Scholar
  79. van der Brug, W., D’Amato, G., Ruedin, D., & Berkhout, J. (2015). A Framework for Studying the Politicization of Immigration. In W. van der Brug, G. D’Amato, D. Ruedin, & J. Berkhout (Eds.), The Politicisation of Migration (pp. 1–17). Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  80. Wright, C. (2010). Policy Legacies and the Politics of Labour Immigration Selection and Control (Cambridge University PhD dissertation).Google Scholar
  81. Wright, C. (2012). Policy Legacies, Visa Reform and the Resilience of Immigration Politics. West European Politics, 35(4), 726–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zolberg, A. (1989). The Next Waves: Migration Theory for a Changing World. International Migration Review, 23(3), 403–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erica Consterdine
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Politics and Sussex Centre for Migration ResearchUniversity of SussexBrightonUK

Personalised recommendations