Advertisement

Discussion and Conclusion

  • James F. Albrecht
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Criminology book series (BRIEFSCRIMINOL)

Abstract

Incidents of police deviance, albeit rare, have tarnished the reputation and image of many police officials and departments across the United States. By distinctly clarifying the categories of police deviance and identifying the most obvious underlying criminological explanations for these unacceptable actions, police administrators and policy makers can implement considerable measures to improve individual and organizational integrity and to take steps to deter police corruption, criminality, brutality, and other acts of serious misconduct from occurring. It is imperative that all efforts be made to ensure that the police profession maintains the highest ethical standards while effectively engaging in crime control and public service. Ultimately, police organizations must aim for the highest levels of public trust and confidence, integrity, and transparency.

Keywords

Police deviance Police corruption Criminology Ethics 

Bibliography

  1. Aamodt, M. G. (2000). The role of the I/O psychologist in police psychology. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 15, 8–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aamodt, M. G. (2004). Research in law enforcement selection. Boca Raton, FL: Brown Walker Press.Google Scholar
  3. Albrecht, J. F. (2011a). Three decades of policing reform in the New York City Police Department. In J. F. Albrecht & D. K. Das (Eds.), Effective crime reduction strategies: International perspectives. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  4. Albrecht, J. F. (2011b). Analyzing the implementation and evolution of community policing in the United States and Scandinavia. In M. Guzman, A. M. Das, & D. K. Das (Eds.), Strategic responses to crime: Thinking globally, acting locally. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  5. Albrecht, J. F. (2013, October). Corruption control through effective leadership: Understanding police deviance. Presentation at the Annual Conference of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  6. Albrecht, J. F. (2017, February). Critical concepts of police leadership. Presentation at the Norwegian Police College, Oslo, Norway.Google Scholar
  7. Arrigo, B. A., & Claussen, N. (2003). Police corruption and psychological testing: A strategy for preemployment screening. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 47(3), 272–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker, A., & Goldstein, J. (2011, October 28). Unsealed indictments shed light on procedures for ticket-fixing by officers. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/29/nyregion/in-ticket-fixing-scandal-16-officers-to-be-charged.html
  9. Barker, T., & Carter, D. L. (1993). Police deviance (3rd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  10. Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartol, C. R. (1991). Predictive validation of the MMPI for small-town police officers who fail. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 22, 127–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Becker, G. (1968). Crime and punishment. Journal of Political Economy, 76(2), 196–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonsignore v. City of New York 521 F. Supp. 394, aff’d 683 F.2d 635, 2nd Cir. (1982).Google Scholar
  14. Burbeck, E., & Furnham, E. (1984). Personality and police selection: Trait differences in successful and non-successful applicants to the metropolitan police. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 5(3), 257–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Colaprete, F. A. (2012). Pre-employment background investigations for public safety professionals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Colquhoun, P. (1975). A treatise on the police of the metropolis. Patterson Smith Reprint Series in Criminology, Law Enforcement and Social Problems (7th ed.), Publication No. 42 (reprinted 1969).Google Scholar
  17. COPS Office. (2015). President’s task force on 21st century policing implementation guide: Moving from recommendations to action. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.Google Scholar
  18. Cosgrove, C. A., & McElroy J. E. (1986). The fixed tour experiment in the 115th precinct: Its effects on police officer stress, community perceptions, and precinct management. Executive Summary. New York: Vera Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  19. Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO personality inventory and new five factor inventory: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  20. Costello, R. M., Schneider, S. L., & Schoenfeld, L. S. (1996). Validation of a preemployment MMPI index correlated with disciplinary suspension days of police officers. Psychology, Crime and Law, 2, 299–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Costello, R. M., Schoenfeld, L. S., & Kobos, J. (1982). Police applicant screening: An analogue study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38(1), 216–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crank, J. P., & Caldero, M. A. (1999). Police ethics: The corruption of noble cause. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  23. Dantzker, M. L. (2011). Psychological pre-employment screening for police candidates: Seeking consistency if not standardization. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42(3), 276–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Detrick, P., & Chibnall, J. T. (2006). NEO PI-R personality characteristics of high performing entry-level police officers. Psychological Services, 3, 274–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elkins v. United States 364 U.S. 206. (1960).Google Scholar
  26. Erikson, K. T. (1962). Notes on the sociology of deviance. Social Problems, 9, 307–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fyfe, J. J., Jones, P. R., Kane, R., & Silver, C. (2002). Bad cops: A study of career-ending misconduct among New York City police officers. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  28. Fyfe, J. J., & Kane, R. (2006). Bad cops: A study of career-ending misconduct among New York City police officers. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  29. Gaylord, M. S., & Galliher, J. F. (1988). The criminology of Edward Sutherland. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  30. Gips, M. (1998). A corrupt personality? Security Management, 42(9), 14.Google Scholar
  31. Goldstein, H. (1990). Problem-oriented policing. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  32. Haberfeld, M. R., Klockars, C. B., Kutnjak Ivkovich, S., & Pagon, M. (2000). Police officer perceptions of the disciplinary consequences of police corruption in Croatia, Poland, Slovenia, and the United States. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal, 1(1), 41–72.Google Scholar
  33. Hardy v. Town of Hayneville 50 F.Supp.2d 1176 M.D. Ala. (1999).Google Scholar
  34. Hargrove, G. E., & Hiatt, D. (1989). Use of the California Psychological Inventory in law enforcement officer selection. Journal of Personality Assessment, 53, 267–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hargrove, G. E., Hiatt, D., & Gaffney, T. W. (1988). F + 4 + 9 + Cn: An MMPI measure of aggression in law enforcement officers and applicants. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 16, 268–273.Google Scholar
  36. Harris, D. A. (2009). How accountability-based policing can reinforce—Or replace—The fourth amendment exclusionary rule. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 7, 149.Google Scholar
  37. Hickman, M. J., Piquero, A. R., Lawton, B. A., & Greene, J. R. (2001). Applying Tittle’s control balance theory to police deviance. Policing, 24(4), 497–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hunt, J., & Manning, P. (1993). The social context of police lying. In K. Delos (Ed.), Deviant behavior. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  39. Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department. (1991). Report of the independent commission on the Los Angeles police department. Los Angeles: Independent Commission on the LAPD.Google Scholar
  40. Inwald, R. E., & Brockwell, A. L. (1991). Predicting the performance of government security personnel with the IPI and MMPI. Journal of Personality Assessment, 56(3), 522–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Inwald, R. E., & Shusman, E. J. (1984). The IPI and MMPI as predictors of academy performance for police recruits. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 12(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
  42. Johnson, L. B. (1965, March 8). Special message to the congress on law enforcement and the administration of justice. Online by G. Peters & J. T. Woolley, The American presidency project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=26800
  43. Kappeler, V. E., Sluder, R. D., & Alpert, G. P. (1998). Forces of deviance: Understanding the dark side of policing (2nd ed.). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.Google Scholar
  44. Katzenbach, N. D. (1967). The challenge of crime in a free society: A report by the president’s commission on law enforcement and administration of justice. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  45. Kavanaugh, J. J. (2010). No back-up needed: How veteran New York City cops struggled through the summer of 1975, when New York City went broke. Oakland, OR: Red Anvil Press.Google Scholar
  46. Klockars, C. B., Kutnjak Ivkovich, S., & Haberfeld, M. R. (2003). The contours of police integrity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  47. Knatz, H. F., Inwald, R. E., Brockwell, A. L., & Tran, L. N. (1992). IPI and MMPI predictions of counterproductive job behaviors by racial group. Journal of Business and Psychology, 7, 189–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kornfield, A. D. (1995). Police officer candidate MMPI-2 performance: Gender, ethnic and normative factors. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 536–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mara, W. (2009). Perspectives on civil unrest in the 1960s: Riots and their aftermath. New York: Benchmark Books.Google Scholar
  50. Mass, P. (1973). Serpico, the cop who defied the system. New York: The Viking Press.Google Scholar
  51. McAlary, M. (1989). Buddy boys: When good cops turn bad. Kirkwood, NY: Putnam Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  52. Merton, R. K. (1968). Social theory and social structure. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  53. Miranda v. Arizona 384 U.S. 436. (1966).Google Scholar
  54. Mollen, M. (1994). Commission report: Commission to investigate allegations of police corruption and the anti-corruption procedures of the police department. New York: City of New York.Google Scholar
  55. New York City Civilian Complaint Review Board. (2012). History of the CCRB. NYC Civilian Complaint Review Board Website. http://www.nyc.gov/html/ccrb/html/history.html
  56. New York City Police Department. (1990). NYPD staffing needs plan. New York: NYPD Printing Office.Google Scholar
  57. New York City Police Department. (1997). Courtesy, professionalism, respect. New York: NYPD Printing Office.Google Scholar
  58. New York City Police Department. (2000). NYPD response to the draft “police practices and civil rights in New York City”. New York: NYPD Printing Office.Google Scholar
  59. New York City Police Department. (2002). NYPD Internal Affairs Bureau Annual Report 2001. New York: NYPD Printing Office.Google Scholar
  60. New York City Police Department. (2012). NYPD Internal Affairs Bureau Annual Report 2011. New York: NYPD Printing Office.Google Scholar
  61. Packman, D. (2010). National police misconduct reporting system. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.Google Scholar
  62. Pallone, N. J. (1992). The MMPI in police officer selection: Legal constraints, case law, empirical data. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 17, 171–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Player, M. A. (2009). Federal law of employment discrimination in a nutshell (6th ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  64. President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. (1967). Report of the president’s commission on law enforcement and administration of justice. Washington, DC: White House.Google Scholar
  65. Punch, M. (2000). Police corruption and its prevention. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 8, 301–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ridgeway, G. (2007). New York: Analysis of racial disparities in the New York City Police Department’s stop, question and frisk practices. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.Google Scholar
  67. Rios v. United States 364 U.S. 253. (1960).Google Scholar
  68. Sanders, B. A. (2008). Using personality traits to predict police officer performance. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 31(1), 129–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sarchione, C. D., Cuttler, M. J., Muchinsky, P. M., & Nelson-Gray, R. O. (1998). Prediction of dysfunctional job behaviors among law enforcement officers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 904–914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Scogin, F., Schumacher, J., Gardner, J., & Chaplin, W. (1995). Predictive validity of psychological testing in law enforcement settings. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 26, 68–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Siegel, L. J. (2011). Criminology: The core (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishers.Google Scholar
  72. Simmers, K. D., Bowers, T. G., & Ruiz, J. M. (2003). Pre-employment psychological testing of police officers: The MMPI and the IPI as predictors of performance. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 5, 277–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sykes, M., & Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 22(6), 644–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Terry v. Ohio 392 U.S. 1. (1968).Google Scholar
  75. The President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. (1967). Task force report: The police. Washington, DC: USGPO.Google Scholar
  76. Thompson, G. (1983). Verbal judo: Words as a force option. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  77. Tittle, C. (1995). Control balance: Toward a general theory of deviance. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  78. Transparency International. (2017). Corruption perceptions index 2016. Berlin: Transparency International.Google Scholar
  79. Travis, M. A. (1994). Psychological health tests for violence-prone police officers: Objectives, shortcomings, and alternatives. Stanford Law Review, 46(6), 1717–1770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Trojanowicz, R., & Bucqueroux, B. (1998). Community policing: How to get started (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  81. United States Department of Justice. (1989). Crime in the United States 1988. Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  82. United States Department of Justice. (1990). Crime in the United States 1989. Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  83. Vera Institute of Justice. (1984). The community patrol officer program: A pilot program in community oriented policing in the 72nd precinct. Interim Progress Report (Internal Document). New York: Vera Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  84. Wickersham Commission Reports. (1931). Report on the police, No. 14. Washington, DC: USGPO.Google Scholar
  85. Widom, C. S. (1989). The cycle of violence. Science, 244, 160–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wilson, J. Q., & Kelling, G. L. (1982). Broken windows: The police and neighborhood safety. Atlantic Quarterly, 256, 29–38.Google Scholar
  87. Workowski, E. J., & Pallone, N. J. (1999). Previously unscored pre-service MMPI data in relation to police performance over a decade: A multivariate inquiry. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 29, 71–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • James F. Albrecht
    • 1
  1. 1.Pace UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations