Introduction and Overview
Most of the prior research has failed to detail a clear typology for different categories of police deviance and has predominantly relied on the identification or listing of conduct or actions considered inappropriate for policing officials. The goal of this research has been to correct this void. In simplest terms, police deviance can be defined as disregarding agency policy, rules and regulations, societal expectations, and/or criminal law. The new typology developed by the author posits that the five basic categories of police deviance can be specified as (1) police corruption, (2) police criminality, (3) excessive use of force, (4) abuse of authority, and (5) police misconduct. The different categories of police deviance as it relates to the experiences within the NYPD, the LAPD, and other American metropolitan police agencies over the last 50 years will be comprehensively outlined and analyzed. Based on this examination, an attempt will be made to determine if an evaluation of police deviance through criminological perspectives would prove to be useful in formulating practical policy recommendations to deter corruption, criminal behavior, and serious abuses and in enhancing effective leadership and professionalism within police organizations.