• Guerino Mazzola
Part of the Computational Music Science book series (CMS)


This chapter introduces the universal data format of denotators to describe musical objects. Denotators generalize the structures of local compositions in mathematical music theory as well as the data model used in the RUBATO® software. They do, however, not include deeper semantic layers which are related to physical, psychic, social or religious meaning. Their semiotic structure represents an elaborate denotative baseline and resides in a purely mental level usually attributed to mathematical objects.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guerino Mazzola
    • 1
  1. 1.School of MusicUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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