Chronic Liver Failure and Hepatic Cirrhosis

  • Lauren Tal Grinspan
  • Elizabeth C. Verna


Chronic liver disease is a condition that is characterized by persistent liver injury for more than 6 months after initial exposure or diagnosis of liver disease. Causes of chronic liver disease include infectious, inflammatory, toxic, vascular and congenital/genetic etiologies. The presence of persistent liver injury induces a healing response that results in hepatic fibrosis. Cirrhosis is a late stage of hepatic fibrosis characterized by distortion of normal liver architecture that leads to hepatocellular dysfunction, increased intrahepatic resistance and ultimately to hepatic insufficiency and the development of portal hypertension. Complications of cirrhosis include impaired synthetic function (including jaundice and coagulopathy), portal hypertension (leading to ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, variceal hemorrhage, portosystemic encephalopathy) and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Prognosis is dependent on the presence of the previously mentioned...


Hepatitis Chronic liver disease Hepatic fibrosis Liver failure Cirrhosis Portal hypertension 



American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases


Alcoholic hepatitis


Adenosine triphosphate


Center for disease control




Extracellular matrix


Hepatitis B virus


Hepatocellular carcinoma


Hepatitis C virus


Hepatopulmonary syndrome


Hepatorenal syndrome


Hepatic stellate cell


Hepatic venous pressure gradient




Maddrey discriminant function


Model for end-stage liver disease


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease


Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis


Portopulmonary hypertension


Portosystemic encephalopathy


Portal venous thrombosis


Serum-ascites albumin gradient


Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis


Transforming growth factor


Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt


Toll-like receptors


Tumor necrosis factor


United States preventative services task force


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Transplant Initiative, Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Center for Liver Disease and TransplantationColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

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