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Modeling Magnetospheric Fields in the Jupiter System

  • Joachim Saur
  • Emmanuel Chané
  • Oliver Hartkorn
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 448)

Abstract

The various processes which generate magnetic fields within the Jupiter system are exemplary for a large class of similar processes occurring at other planets in the solar system, but also around extrasolar planets. Jupiter’s large internal dynamo magnetic field generates a gigantic magnetosphere, which in contrast to Earth’s magnetosphere is strongly rotational driven and possesses large plasma sources located deeply within the magnetosphere. The combination of the latter two effects is the primary reason for Jupiter’s main auroral ovals. Jupiter’s moon Ganymede is the only known moon with an intrinsic dynamo magnetic field, which generates a mini-magnetosphere located within Jupiter’s larger magnetosphere including two auroral ovals. Ganymede’s mini-magnetosphere is qualitatively different compared the one from Jupiter. It possesses no bow shock but develops pronounced Alfvén wings similar to most of the extrasolar planets which orbit their host stars within 0.1 AU. New numerical models of Jupiter’s and Ganymede’s magnetospheres presented here provide quantitative insight into these magnetospheres and the processes which maintain them. Jupiter’s magnetospheric field is time-variable on various scales. At the locations of Jupiter’s moons time-periodic magnetic fields induce secondary magnetic fields in electrically conductive layers such as subsurface oceans. In the case of Ganymede, these secondary magnetic fields influence the oscillation of the location of its auroral ovals. Based on dedicated Hubble Space Telescope observations, an analysis of the amplitudes of the auroral oscillations provides evidence that Ganymede harbors a subsurface ocean. Callisto in contrast does not possess a mini-magnetosphere, but still shows a perturbed magnetic field environment generated by induction within an electrically conductive layer and due to the plasma interactions with its atmosphere. Callisto’s ionosphere and atmospheric UV emission is different compared to the other Galilean satellites as it has primarily been generated by solar photons compared to magnetospheric electrons. At Callisto a fluid-kinetic model of the ionospheric electron distribution provides constraints on Callisto’s oxygen atmosphere.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joachim Saur
    • 1
  • Emmanuel Chané
    • 2
  • Oliver Hartkorn
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Geophysics and MeteorologyUniversity of CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.Centre for Mathematical Plasma AstrophysicsKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

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