Solutions to Curtailing Timber Trafficking in Vietnam

  • Ngoc Anh Cao
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Green Criminology book series (PSGC)

Abstract

The identification of key causes and conditions of crime, and suggested appropriate solutions to eliminate these factors, thereby curtailing crime are an important task in criminological research. This is particularly meaningful in the field of environmental crime where practical solutions to control the crime have not yet received much attention (Chap.  2). As White and Heckenberg (2014: 19) rightly argue “knowing about the damage and about criminality is one thing. But in the end, it is how groups, organisations, institutions and societies respond to environmental harm that ultimately counts”. This chapter considers the key factors that drive timber trafficking in the context of Vietnam and then suggests corresponding solutions to tackle these root causes. Two types of solutions are identified and explained in this chapter: policy framework and law enforcement.

References

  1. Alemagi, D., & Kozak, R. A. (2010). Illegal logging in Cameroon: Causes and the path forward. Forest Policy and Economics, 12(8), 554–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ba Thang. (2014). Gốc cây gây sốt [Tree stumps become best sellers]. Cong an Da Nang, 1/11/2014. Retrieved March 25, 2015, from http://cadn.com.vn/news/65_122617_go-c-cay-gay-so-t.aspx
  3. Boekhout van Solinge, T. (2010). Equatorial deforestation as harmful practice and criminological issue. In R. White (Ed.), Global environmental harm. Cullompton, UK: Willan.Google Scholar
  4. Boissiere, M., Sheil, D., Basuki, I., Wan, M., & Le, H. (2009). Can engaging local people’s interests reduce forest degradation in Central Vietnam? Biodiversity and Conservation, 18(10), 2743–2757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brunner, J. (2012). Biodiversity conservation in Vietnam: A perfect storm. IUCN Vietnam. Retrieved from http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_nbsap_workshop_march_2012_paper_final.pdf
  6. Cong Bac. (2014). 12 tháng tù giam cho cán bộ kiểm lâm tiếp tay cho lâm tặc [12 months imprisonment for Kiem Lam officer supporting Lam Tac]. VOV—Đài tiếng nói Việt Nam, 12/12/2014. Retrieved December 21, 2014, from http://vov.vn/phap-luat/12-thang-tu-giam-cho-can-bo-kiem-lam-tiep-tay-cho-lam-tac-370594.vov
  7. Contreras-Hermosilla, A. (2001). Law compliance in the forestry sector: An overview. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  8. Contreras-Hermosilla, A. (2002). Conference paper: Policy and legal options to improve law compliance in the forest sector—Reforming Government Policies and the Fight against Forest Crime, pp. 43–91. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  9. Crow, M., Shelley, T. O. C., & Stretesky, P. (2014). Camouflage-collar crime: An examination of wildlife crime and characteristics of offenders in Florida. In T. Spapens, R. White, & M. Kluin (Eds.), Environmental crime and its victims: Perspectives within green criminology (pp. 185–204). Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  10. Dao Le, T. (2010). Bribery offences under Vietnamese criminal law in comparision with Swedish and Australian criminal law. Ph.D. thesis, Hanoi Law University—Lund University.Google Scholar
  11. Davies, M., Tyrer, J., & Croall, H. (2009). Criminal justice. New York: Pearson Longman.Google Scholar
  12. de Jong, W., Do, D. S., & Trieu, V. H. (2006). Forest rehabilitation in Vietnam: Histories, realities, and future. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research—CIFOR.Google Scholar
  13. Department of Legal Affairs—Mard. (2012). Conference paper: The status of forest protection and solutions to enhance the work of forest protection. In Preventing and combatting violations against legislations on forest protection (pp. 18–29). Hanoi: The Department of Preventing and Combating Environmental Crimes (in Vietnamese).Google Scholar
  14. Do, A. T. (2010). Measuring the effectiveness of the enforcement of organised wildlife trade crime: A comparative assessment between Vietnam and England and Weles. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the University of the West of England, Bristol for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of the West of England.Google Scholar
  15. Drury, R. C. (2009). Identifying and understanding consumers of wild animal products in Hanoi, Vietnam: Implication for conservation management. The Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University College London.Google Scholar
  16. Duy Tuan. (2012). ‘Xã lâm tặc’ và những khu rừng bị chảy máu [‘Lam Tac commune’ and the bleeding forests]. 09/03/2012. Retrieved February 6, 2015, from http://vietnamnet.vn/vn/xa-hoi/63333/-xa-lam-tac--va-nhung-khu-rung-bi-chay-mau.html
  17. EIA. (2012). Appetite for destruction: China’s trade in illegal timber. London: Environmental Investigation Agency.Google Scholar
  18. EIA & TELAPAK. (2009). Up for grabs: Deforestation and exploitation in Papua’s plantations boom. London and Bogor, Indonesia: Environmental Investigation Agency and Telapak. Retrieved from http://www.eia-international.org/wp-content/uploads/up-for-grabs.pdf
  19. Emerton, L., Bishop, J., & Thomas, L. (2006). Sustainable financing of protected areas: A global review of challenges and options. Gland, Switzerland; Cambridge, UK: IUCN. Retrieved from http://www.europarc.org/uploaded/documents/128.pdf
  20. Environmental Police Department. (2012). Conference paper: Opening paper—The work of preventing and combating the violations on forest protection. In Preventing and combatting violations against legislations on forest protection (pp. 7–10). Hanoi: The Department of Preventing and Combating Environmental Crimes (in Vietnamese).Google Scholar
  21. Forest Trends. (2013). Small-scale illegal logging in Vietnam: Implications for FLEGT and REDD+. The Forest Trends.Google Scholar
  22. FPD. (2012). Report on the operational performance in 2011 and the working programme in 2012. Hanoi: The Forest Protection Department (in Vietnamese).Google Scholar
  23. FPD. (2013). Forest protection force of Vietnam: Forty years of construction and development (1973–2013). Hanoi: The Forest Protection Department (in Vietnamese).Google Scholar
  24. FSIV & FAO. (2009). Vietnam forestry outlook study. Bangkok: Forest Science Institute of Vietnam and FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.Google Scholar
  25. Global Compact Network Vietnam. (2010). A review of the social and environmental conditions of industries in Vietnam against the global compact principles. Hanoi, Vietnam. Retrieved from http://www.globalcompactvietnam.org/upload/attach/GCNV%20Research%201.pdf
  26. Government Inspectorate. (2014). The declaration No.2490/TB-TTCP, 15/10/2014 of the inspection conclusion on the land management and utilisation with focus on land allocation and forest allocation in a number of projects in Dak Nong province in the 2004–2011 period. Hanoi: Government Inspectorate of Vietnam (in Vietnamese).Google Scholar
  27. Ha Binh—Trung Tan. (2014). Giảm 130.000 ha rừng, cơ quan nào chịu trách nhiệm? [The redution of 130,000 ha of forests: Which authorities are accountable?]. Tuoi Tre, 13/12/2014. Retrieved January 31, 2015, from http://tuoitre.vn/tin/chinh-tri-xa-hoi/20141213/giam-130000-ha-rung-co-quan-nao-chiu-trach-nhiem/684381.html
  28. Hewitt, D. (2013). Potential legality issues from forest conversion timber. Forest Trends. Retrieved from http://www.forest-trends.org/documents/files/doc_4137.pdf
  29. ITTO. (2011). Status of tropical forest management 2011. Yokohoma: International Tropical Timber Organization.Google Scholar
  30. Kaimowits, D. (2007). Forest law enforcement and rural livelihoods. In L. Tacconi (Ed.), Illegal logging: Law enforcement, livelihoods and the timber trade (pp. 110–138). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  31. Khanh Hoan. (2013). Vụ lật xe chở gỗ lậu khiến 10 người chết: 8 bị cáo lãnh án tù [The case of flipped truck of illegal timber killing 10 people: 8 defendants are sentenced to prison]. Laodong, 24/1/2013. Retrieved June 2, 2015, from http://www.thanhnien.com.vn/pages/20130124/vu-lat-xe-cho-go-lau-khien-10-nguoi-chet-8-bi-cao-lanh-an-tu.aspx
  32. Kishor, N., & Oksanen, T. (2006). Combating illegal logging and corruption in the forestry sector. Strengthening forest law enforcement and governance. Environment Matters, The World Bank Group.Google Scholar
  33. Le Minh. (2014). Lâm tặc là ai? [Who are Lam Tacs?]. Tien Phong, 2/12/2014. Retrieved December 21, 2014, from http://www.tienphong.vn/xa-hoi-chuyen-hom-nay/lam-tac-la-ai-790928.tpo
  34. Le Phuoc. (2014) (10/12/2014). Vụ rừng sinh thái Buôn Đôn bị phá—Trách nhiệm thuộc về ai? Tai Nguyen & Moi Truong. Retrieved January 30, 2015, from http://tainguyenmoitruong.com.vn/vu-rung-sinh-thai-buon-don-dak-lak-bi-pha-trach-nhiem-thuoc-ve-ai.html
  35. MARD. (2012). National forest status declaration. Development, M. O. A. A. R. Hanoi: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.Google Scholar
  36. MARD. (2014). Decision 3322/QD-BNN-TCLN on the national forest status declaration by 2013. Hanoi: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (in Vietnamese).Google Scholar
  37. McElwee, P. (2004). You say illegal, I say legal: The relationship between ‘illegal’ logging and land tenure, poverty, and forest use rights in Vietnam. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 19(1-3), 97–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Milliken, T., & Shaw, J. (2012). The South Africa-Viet Nam Rhino Horn trade nexus: A deadly combination of institutional lapses, corrupt wildlife industry professionals, and Asian crime syndicates. Johannesburg, South Africa: Traffic.Google Scholar
  39. MNRE. (2010). National Environmental Report—2010—Overview of the environmental in Vietnam. Hanoi: Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (in Vietnamese).Google Scholar
  40. N.Hung. (2014). Về “thủ phủ vàng” nghe chuyện xử lâm tặc [Visit “the capital of gold” to listen the story of treating illegal loggers] Gia Dinh & Xa Hoi [Family and Society], 3/9/2014. Retrieved February 5, 2015, from http://giadinh.net.vn/xa-hoi/ve-thu-phu-vang-nghe-chuyen-xu-lam-tac-2014090308289738.htm
  41. Nam Phuong. (2014). Làm trong sạch lượng kiểm lâm [Purifying the Kiem Lam force]. Nong Nghiep Viet Nam, 2/12/2014. Retrieved December 21, 2014, from http://nongnghiep.vn/lam-trong-sach-luc-luong-kiem-lam-post135413.html
  42. Nellemann, C. (2012). Green carbon, black trade: Illegal logging, tax fraud and laundering in the worlds tropical forests. A rapid response assessment. Birkeland Trykkeri AS, Norway: Interpol Environmental Crime Programme—United Nations.Google Scholar
  43. Nellemann, C., Henriksen, R., Raxter, P., Ash, N., & Mrema, E. (2014). The environmental crisis—Threats to sustainable development from illegal exploitation and trade in wildlife and forest resources. United Nations Environment Programme and GRID-Arendal, Nairobi and Arendal. Retrieved from http://www.grida.no/
  44. Ngoc Linh. (2014). Chung quanh việc giao đất, giao rừng cho đồng bào dân tộc thiểu số [Regarding the issue of allocating lands and forests for the ethnic minority residents]. Nhan Dan, 22/11/2014. Retrieved March 26, 2015, from http://www.nhandan.com.vn/mobile/_mobile_kinhte/_mobile_tintuc/item/24901102.html
  45. Nguyen Cau. (2014). Rừng đặc dụng Bà Nà—Núi Chúa bị tàn phá do đâu [Why is the special use forest of Ba Na—Nui Chua destroyed?]. Cong An Nhan Dan Online, 31/10/2014. Retrieved January 20, 2015, from http://cand.com.vn/Xa-hoi/Rung-dac-dung-Ba-Na---Nui-Chua-bi-tan-pha-do-dau-276935/
  46. Nguyen Duy. (2013). Vụ lật xe chở gỗ đè chết 10 người: Các bị cáo lĩnh 206 tháng tù [The case of flipped truck of illegal timber killing 10 people: The defendants get 206 month in prison]. Dantri, 25/1/2013. Retrieved June 2, 2015, from http://dantri.com.vn/phap-luat/vu-lat-xe-cho-go-de-chet-10-nguoi-cac-bi-cao-linh-206-thang-tu-689243.htm
  47. Nguyen, M. H., Vu, V. D., Nguyen, V. S., Hoang, V. T., Nguyen, H. D., Pham, N. T., et al. (2007). Report on the review of Vietnam’s wildlife trade policy. Hanoi: CRES/FPD/UNEP/CITES/IUED.Google Scholar
  48. Nguyen Nam. (2015). Khởi tố, bắt giam kiểm lâm viên huyện Hàm Tân [Charging and arresting a Kiem Lam staff in Ham Tan district]. Tuoi Tre, 28/3/2015. Retrieved March 29, 2015, from http://tuoitre.vn/tin/chinh-tri-xa-hoi/20150328/khoi-to-bat-giam-kiem-lam-vien-huyen-ham-tan/726599.html
  49. Nguyen Thuong. (2011). Bao giờ kiểm lâm sống được bằng lương? [When can Kiem Lam live with their salary?]. Con Nguoi & Thien Nhien, 28/11/2011. Retrieved June 2, 2015, from http://www.thiennhien.net/2011/11/28/bao-gio-kiem-lam-song-duoc-bang-luong/
  50. Nguyen, T. N. (2013). Tham nhũng—nguyên nhân và biện pháp ngăn ngừa [Corruption—Causes and preventive measures]. Communist Review—Tap chi Cong san, 17/1/2013. Retrieved June 2, 2015, from http://www.tapchicongsan.org.vn/Home/PrintStory.aspx?distribution=19790&print=true
  51. Nguyen, V. S. (2003). Vietnam’s illegal trade in wildlife: Why it flourishes. Hanoi, Vietnam: Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia.Google Scholar
  52. Nguyen Xuan. (2013). Hành trình sa ngã của một sĩ quan [The wrong journey of a officer]. Khanh Hoa Online, 23/11/2013. Retrieved June 2, 2015, from http://baokhanhhoa.com.vn/phap-luat/201311/hanh-trinh-sa-nga-cua-mot-si-quan-2277047/
  53. Nong Nghiep Vietnam. (2012). Kiểm lâm—nghề đặc biệt [Kiem Lam—The special occupation]. Nong nghiep Vietnam, 22/05/2012. Retrieved June 2, 2015, from http://nongnghiep.vn/nongnghiepvn/72/1/15/94960/kiem-lamnghe-dac-biet.aspx
  54. NORAD. (2011). Joint evaluation of support to anti-corruption efforts—Viet Nam country report. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation.Google Scholar
  55. Nurse, A. (2013). Animal harm: Perspectives on why people harm and kill animals. Farnham, Surrey, UK; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  56. OECD. (2012). Illegal trade in environmentally sensitive goods. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Olken, B. A., & Pande, R. (2012). Corruption in developing countries. Annual Review of Economics, 4, 479–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pendleton, M. R. (2007). The social basis of illegal logging and forestry law enforcement in North America. In L. Tacconi (Ed.), Illegal logging, law inforcement, livelihoods and the timber trade. London: Earthcan.Google Scholar
  59. Pham, D. X. (2008). Investigation delivered by the investigation police on crimes of economic management and official position over the violations against regulations on forest exploitation and protection. The thesis of PhD in Law, The People’s Police Academy (in Vietnamese).Google Scholar
  60. Pham, S. D. (2011). Điều gì khiến kỳ nam đắt khủng khiếp? [Why Ky Nam is extremely expensive?]. Dan Tri, 18/07/2011. Retrieved June 2, 2015, from http://dantri.com.vn/su-kien/dieu-gi-khien-ky-nam-dat-khung-khiep-499653.htm
  61. Pham, T. T., Moeliono, M., Nguyen, T. H., Nguyen, H. T., & Vu, T. H. (2012). The context of REDD+ in Vietnam—Drivers, agents and institutions. Occasional Paper 75, CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia. Retrieved from http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/OccPapers/OP-75.pdf
  62. Phan, X. S., & Pham, T. L. (2010). Identifying corruption and solutions to prevent and combat corruption in Vietnam nowadays. Hanoi: Chinh tri quoc gia (in Vietnamese).Google Scholar
  63. Phap Luat Viet Nam. (2013). Nguyên Phó Văn phòng Cơ quan CSĐT tù 8 năm vì nhận hối lộ [The former chief of investigative police office sentenced 8 years in prison for receiving bribe]. Dantri, 24/4/2013. Retrieved June 2, 2015, from http://dantri.com.vn/phap-luat/nguyen-pho-van-phong-co-quan-csdt-tu-8-nam-vi-nhan-hoi-lo-723047.htm
  64. Rosander, M. N. (2008). Illegal logging: Current issues and opportunities for Sida/SENSA engagement in Southeast Asia. Bangkok, Thailand: RECOFTC & Sida.Google Scholar
  65. Schloenhardt, A. (2008). The illegal trade in timber and timber products in the Asia-Pacific region—Research and Public Policy Series No. 89. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  66. Seneca Creek Associates, LLC. (2004). “Illegal” logging and global wood markets: The competitive impacts on the US wood products industry. American Forest & Paper Association.Google Scholar
  67. Sikor, T., & To, P. X. (2011). Illegal logging in Vietnam: Lam Tac (forest hijackers) in practice and talk. Society & Natural Resources, 24(7), 688–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stewart, D. (2014). Project leaf, and interpol’s work on illegal logging and forest crime. In T. Spapens, R. White, & M. Kluin (Eds.), Environmental crime and its victims: Perspectives within green criminology (pp. 236–247). Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  69. Tacconi, L. (2007). The problem of illegal logging. In L. Tacconi (Ed.), Illegal logging: Law enforcement, livelihoods and the timber trade (pp. 1–16). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  70. Thai, B. D., & Trung, T. (2012). Khởi tố vụ án phá rừng nghiêm trọng: Xử lý trách nhiệm nhiều cá nhân để xảy ra phá rừng [Prosecution of the serious case of illegal logging: Handling many individuals responsible for illegal logging]. Tuoi Tre, 27/08/2012. Retrieved June 2, 2015, from http://tuoitre.vn/Chinh-tri-xa-hoi/Phap-luat/509006/xu-ly-trach-nhiem-nhieu-ca-nhan-de-xay-ra-pha-rung.html
  71. Thanh Chau. (2013). TAND tỉnh Hà Tĩnh xét xử vụ phá rừng đầu nguồn Sơn Hồng : Tuyên phạt 15 bị cáo 36 năm 6 tháng tù [Ha Tinh Province People’s Court adjudicates the illegal logging case in the Son Hong watershed forest: 15 accused sentenced to 36 years and 6 months imprisonment. Nhan Dan, 31/01/2013. Retrieved June 2, 2015, from http://www.nhandan.com.vn/phapluat/thoi-su-phap-luat/item/225502-.html
  72. The Economist. (2010). Keeping it in the community—Well-organised locals often make the best forest managers, but they need help. The Economist, 23/9/2010. Retrieved February 4, 2015, from http://www.economist.com/node/17062703
  73. To, P. X., Tran, L. H., & Nguyen, T. Q. (2014). The overview of the Vietnamese timber sector: Current status and trends. Forest Trends/VIFORES/FPA Binh Dinh.Google Scholar
  74. To, X. P., & Canby, K. (2011). Vietnam: Overview of forest governance and trade. Kuala Lumpur: European Forest Institute—FLEGT Asia Regional Office.Google Scholar
  75. To, X. P., & Tran, H. N. (2014). Forest land allocation in the context of forestry sector restructuring: Opportunities for forestry development and upland livelihood improvement. Tropenbos International Viet Nam, Hue, Vietnam.Google Scholar
  76. TRAFFIC. (2008). What’s driving the wildlife trade? A review of expert opinion on economic and social drivers of the wildlife trade and trade control efforts in Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR and Vietnam. Washington, DC: TRAFFIC.Google Scholar
  77. Transparency International. (2012). Overview of corruption and anti-corruption in Vietnam No.315. U4 & The Transparency International. Retrieved from http://www.u4.no/publications/overview-of-corruption-and-anti-corruption-in-vietnam/
  78. Tuoi Tre. (2011). Kiểm lâm “làm luật”—Kỳ 2: Làm sai lệch hồ sơ [Kiem Lam “making laws”—Vol 2: Falsifying documentations]. Tuoi Tre, 4/10/2011. Retrieved June 3, 2015, from http://tuoitre.vn/Tuoi-tre-cuoi-tuan/Van-de-Su-kien/458808/Kiem-lam-%E2%80%9Clam-luat%E2%80%9D---Ky-2-Lam-sai-lech-ho-so.html
  79. UNODC. (2012). Wildlife and forest crime analytic toolkit—Revised edition. New York: United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime. Retrieved from http://www.unodc.org/documents/southeastasiaandpacific//Publications/wildlife/CJS_Response_-_VIETNAM_01_13_Dec_201.pdf
  80. UNODC. (2013). Transnational organized crime in East Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok, Thailand: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime—Regional Office for Southeast Asia and the Pacific.Google Scholar
  81. USAID. (2013). Vietnam tropical forest and biodiversity assessment. Retrieved from http://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1861/Vietnam118_119FinalDraft%2015Oct2013%20(Public%20Version).pdf
  82. Uyen Thu. (2013). Vì sao hơn 130,000 ha rừng Tây Nguyên bị bức tử: Kỳ: Kỳ 1Cơn lốc” cao su “tàn sát” rừng [Why more than 130,000 ha of forests in Central Highlands are forced to suicide: Vol 1: The rubbercyclonesmassacre the forests]. Gia Lai, p. 3, released 16/9/2013: Gia Lai Newspaper.Google Scholar
  83. V.Tao. (2013). “Trảm” 2 sĩ quan huyện đội “ăn chặn kỳ nam” [Handling 2 officers of district army appropriating agarwood]. Nguoi Lao Dong, 19/06/2013. Retrieved June 3, 2015, from http://nld.com.vn/phap-luat/tram-2-si-quan-huyen-doi-an-chan-ky-nam-201306190806191.htm
  84. VAF. (2014). Workshop outcomes: “The shortcoming of the policy and practice in the work of forest and land allocation and post allocation”—Kết quả Tọa đàm: “Những bất cập, tồn tại về chính sách và thực tiễn trong công tác giao đất, giao rừng và sau giao đất, giao rừng”, 8/5/2014. Hanoi: Vietnam Administration of Forestry.Google Scholar
  85. Vanrijckeghem, C., & Weder, B. (2001). Bureaucratic corruption and the rate of temptation: Do wages in the civil service affect corruption, and by how much? Journal of development economics, 65(2), 307–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Viet Quoc. (2015). Bình Thuận khó giữ được rừng giáp ranh [It is hard for Binh Thuan to protect the adjacent forests]. VOV, 7/1/2015. Retrieved January 30, 2015, from http://vov.vn/phap-luat/binh-thuan-kho-giu-duoc-rung-giap-ranh-376264.vov
  87. Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry. (2011). Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)—Solution to sustainable development. Retrieved April 04, 2013, from http://vccinews.com/news_detail.asp?news_id=23299
  88. VOV. (2014). Cảnh báo tình trạng phá đá “săn” Hoàng Đàn [Warning the situations of quarrying to “hunt” Hoang Dan timber]. Lang Son Television and Radio, 31/10/2014. Retrieved January 19, 2015, from http://langsontv.vn/node/46079
  89. VTV2. (2013). Timber villages in Vietnam in the context of international integration. TV Programme of Green Vietnam. Education Science Board, Vietnam Television Broadcast.Google Scholar
  90. Wells, A., Gatto, F. D., Richards, M., Pommier, D., & Contreras-Hermosilla, A. (2007). Rural livelihoods, forest law and the illegal timber trade in Honduras and Nicaragua. In L. Tacconi (Ed.), Illegal logging: Law enforcement, livelihoods and the timber trade (pp. 139–167). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  91. White, R. (2011). Transnational environmental crime: Toward an eco-global criminology. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  92. White, R., & Heckenberg, D. (2014). Green criminology: An introduction to the study of environmental harm. Oxon, UK; New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. World Bank. (2005). Vietnam environment monitor 2005—Biodiversity. Hanoi: The Vietnamese Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, the World Bank, and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEAPREGTOPENVIRONMENT/Resources/VN_Env_Monitor_05.pdf
  94. World Bank. (2009). Country social analysis: Ethnicity and development in Vietnam—summary report. Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEAPREGTOPSOCDEV/Resources/499760ESW0Whit1C10VietnamSummary1LR.pdf
  95. Wyatt, T. (2013). Wildlife trafficking—A deconstruction of the crime, the victims and the offenders. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  96. Wyatt, T., & Cao, N. A. (2015). Corruption and wildlife trafficking (pp. 1–54). Bergen, Norway: U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre.Google Scholar
  97. Xuan Hong. (2012). Khi chủ rừng và kiểm lâm cùng nhau... phá rừng [When forest owner and Kiem Lam together... deforest]. Nguoi Dua Tin, 27/12/2012. Retrieved May 29, 2015, from http://www.nguoiduatin.vn/khi-chu-rung-va-kiem-lam-cung-nhau-pha-rung-a42177.html

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ngoc Anh Cao
    • 1
  1. 1.People’s Security AcademyHanoiVietnam

Personalised recommendations