Adaptive MP3 Steganography Using Equal Length Entropy Codes Substitution

  • Kun Yang
  • Xiaowei YiEmail author
  • Xianfeng Zhao
  • Linna Zhou
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10431)


Statistical undetectability is a common problem in current MP3 steganography. In this paper, a novel adaptive scheme of MP3 steganography is proposed for obtaining higher secure payload under the framework of distortion minimization. To avoid disabling MP3 encoder in the embedding process, a mapping construction algorithm using Huffman codes of equal length is realized to hold the length of stego codestream. Furthermore, a content-aware distortion function is designed to achieve optimal masking effect via the psychoacoustic model (PAM). Experimental results show that our method achieves better performance than others in terms of security and secure payload, the detection accuracy of the proposed method is lower than \(55\%\) under 128 kbps when the relative payload is equal to 0.25.


MP3 steganography Huffman code Adaptive steganography Distortion function Psychoacoustic model 



This work was supported by the NSFC under U1636102, U1536207 and U1536105, and National Key Technology R&D Program under 2014BAH41B01, 2016YFB0801003, 2016QY15Z2500 and 2016QY08D1600.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kun Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaowei Yi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Xianfeng Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Linna Zhou
    • 3
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Information Security, Institute of Information EngineeringChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Cyber SecurityUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.School of Information Science and TechnologyUniversity of International RelationsBeijingChina

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