Advertisement

The Persuasive Language of the Berlusconi and Murdoch Press

Chapter
  • 200 Downloads

Abstract

All the preceding chapters set out the context for helping us to understand what Il Giornale and The Times write about the EU. This chapter conducts critical discourse analyses of these two newspapers. By harnessing all that has preceded, this chapter teases out various instances of how and why these publications have discursively constructed Europe for their readers as they have. There are instances when the veil is lifted and one can see parallels between, for example, the pronouncements of the owners, Berlusconi and Murdoch, and the line taken in their publications. In other scenarios the voice of the publication is heard, acting as one of the political actors, as one former journalist has already said, pushing the pendulum further, going beyond commonly held presuppositions over Europe, intervening to influence power and policy, through articulation of say fear or anger.

Keywords

Party–press parallelism Government–press parallelism Argumentation Metaphor Common sense Euro Greece Brexit 

Bibliography

  1. Ashworth-Hayes, S. 2016. We Won’t Be in a Single Market Without Free Movement. InFacts, April 6. https://infacts.org/mythbusts/uk-wont-single-market-without-free-movement/. Accessed 21 Apr 2017.
  2. BBC. 2002. Berlusconi Says Italy Backs EU. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/1746894.stm. Accessed 19 Apr 2017.
  3. BBC. 2003a. Labour ‘Calm’ Over Murdoch Threat. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/3272693.stm. Accessed 20 June 2017.
  4. BBC. 2003b. Murdoch paper ‘may back Tories’. http://Newsvote.bbc.co.uk. Posted 15 November 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/3272023.stm. Accessed 31 Aug 2017.
  5. BBC. 2016a. Reality Check: Could There Be Free Trade Without Free Movement? June. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-eureferendum-36641383. Accessed 26 Oct 2016.
  6. BBC. 2016b. Andrea Leadsom ‘Motherhood’ Comments Spark Row, July 9. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-36752865. Accessed 20 Apr 2017.
  7. BBC. 2016c. Hate Crime ‘Still Far Too High’ Post-Brexit—Police, July 22. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-36869000. Accessed 26 Oct 2016.
  8. Bourdieu, P. 2005. The Political Field, the Social Science Field, and the Journalistic Field. In Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field, ed. R. Benson and E. Neveu, 29–47. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  9. Dardano, M. 1976. Il linguaggio dei giornali italiani. Bari: Laterza.Google Scholar
  10. Dedman, M.J. 1996. The Origins and Development of the European Union, 1945–1995: A history of European Integration. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Diamanti, A., and F. Bordignon. 2005. Immigrazione e cittadinanza in Europa. Orientamenti e attagiamenti dei cittadini europei. Urbino: Fondazione Nord Est.Google Scholar
  12. Dougal, J. 2004. Why I Can no Longer Sell Europe to the British. The Independent, July 5.Google Scholar
  13. Elliot, F and D. Charter. 2007. Battle for EU treaty to last for months. The Times, October 19.Google Scholar
  14. Feltri, V. 2003. Piccola storia del giornalismo. Libero, June 13.Google Scholar
  15. Fossum, J.E., and P. Schlesinger (eds.). 2007. The European Union and the Public Sphere: A Communicative Space in the Making? London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Garton-Ash, T. 2005. Free World. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  17. Gavin, N. 2001. British Journalists in the Spotlight: Europe and Media Research. Journalism 2 (3): 299–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gellner, E. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  19. Gifford, C. 2008. The Making of a Eurosceptic Britain. Identity and Economy in a Post-imperial State. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  20. Gifford, C. 2014. The Making of Eurosceptic Britain. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Ginzborg, P. 2003. Italy and Its Discontents: Family, Civil Society, State. 1980–2001. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  22. Giordano, B. 2004. The Politics of the Northern League and Italy’s Changing Attitude Towards Europe. Perspectives on European Politics and Society 5 (1): 61–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Giuliani, M. 2001. Europeanization and Italy: A Bottom-Up Process? South European Society and Politics 5 (2): 47–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grice, A. 2006. Murdoch Set to Back Blair—For a Place in His Boardroom. The Independent, July 29.Google Scholar
  25. Guardian. 2016a. The Guardian View on the EU Referendum: Keep Connected and Inclusive, not Angry and Isolated, June 20.Google Scholar
  26. Guardian. 2016b. Cameron: Brexiters Stoking Intolerance, June 21.Google Scholar
  27. Hallin, D., and P. Mancini. 2004. Comparing Media Systems. Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harding, J. 2002. Murdoch to Duel with Blair on Euro. The Financial Times, June 11, p. 30.Google Scholar
  29. House of Commons Treasury Committee. 2016. The Economic and Financial Costs and Benefits of the UK’s EU Membership, May.Google Scholar
  30. Johnson, B., and N. Farrell. 2003. Forza Berlusconi! The Spectator, September 6, 12–16.Google Scholar
  31. Keith, W., and C. Lundberg (2008). The Essential Guide to Rhetoric. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.Google Scholar
  32. Khomami, N. 2016. Daily Mail Publishes Correction to Story About ‘Migrants from Europe’. The Guardian, June 27.Google Scholar
  33. Kienpointner, M. 1992. Alltagslogik: Struktur und Funktion von Argumentationsmustern. Stuttgart Bad Cannstatt: frommann-holzboog.Google Scholar
  34. Kopperschmidt, J. 1989. Methodik der Argumentationsanalyse. Stuttgart: frommann-holzboog.Google Scholar
  35. Lyons, K. 2016. Racist Incidents Feared to Be Linked to Brexit Result. The Guardian, June 26.Google Scholar
  36. Malešević, S. 2006. Nationalism and the Power of Ideology. In The Sage Handbook of Nations and Nationalism, ed. G. Delanty and K. Kumar, 307–319. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  37. Mautner, G. 2008. Analyzing Newspapers, Magazines and Other Print Media. In Qualitative Discourse Analysis, ed. R. Wodak and M. Krzyżanowski, 30–53. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  38. Milward, A. 1992. The European Rescue of the Nation-State. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Moffitt, B., and S. Tormey. 2014. Rethinking Populism: Politics, Mediatisation and Political Style. Political Studies 62: 381–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Morgan, D. 1995. British Media and European Union News. European Journal of Communication 10 (3): 321–343Google Scholar
  41. Musolff, A. 2004. Metaphor and Political Discourse. Analogical Reasoning in Debates About Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Oberhuber, F., and M. Krzyżanowski. 2007. (Un)Doing Europe. Discourses and Practices of Negotiating the EU Constitution. Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  43. Oberhuber, F., C. Bärenreuter, M. Krzyżanowski, H. Schönbauer, and R. Wodak. 2005. ‘Debating the Constitution: On the Representations of Europe/the EU in the Press. Journal of Language and Politics 4 (2): 227–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Quinn, B. 2016. Six Teenage Boys Arrested Over Death of Polish Man in Essex. The Guardian, August 30.Google Scholar
  45. Richardson, J. 2007. Analysing Newspapers. An Approach from Critical Discourse. Analysis. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
  46. Roidi, V. 2001. La Fabbrica delle Notizie. Bari: Laterza.Google Scholar
  47. Schickler, J. 2016. Voters Weren’t Misled About ‘Common Market’. InFacts, March 23.Google Scholar
  48. Shawcross, W. 1992. Murdoch. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  49. Siddique, H. 2016. Latest Assault on Polish Men in Harlow Investigated as Possible Hate Crime. The Guardian, September 4.Google Scholar
  50. Sodha, S. 2015. Why is EU Free Movement so Important? BBC News, July 27. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-33655318. Accessed 26 Oct 2016.
  51. Sonwalkar, P. 2005. Banal Journalism. The Centrality of the ‘Us–Them’ Binary in News Discourse. In Journalism: Critical Issues, ed. S. Allan, 261–273. Maidenhead: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Sparrow, A. 2016. MPs’ Report Condemns ‘Misleading’ EU Referendum Campaigns. The Guardian, May 27.Google Scholar
  53. Springford, J. 2013. Is Immigration a Reason for Britain to Leave the EU? Centre for European Reform.Google Scholar
  54. Statham, P. 2008. Making Europe News: How Journalists View Their Role and Media Performance. Journalism 9: 398–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Straehle, C., P. Muntigl, M. Sedlak, G. Weiss, and R. Wodak. 1999. Struggle as Metaphor in European Union Discourses on Unemployment. Discourse and Society 10 (1): 67–99.Google Scholar
  56. Stubbs, M. 1996. Text and Corpus Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  57. Sumption, M., and W. Somerville. 2009. The UK’s New Europeans: Progress and Challenges Five Years After Accession. Equality and Human Rights Commission.Google Scholar
  58. Taggart, P., and A. Szczerbiak. 2004. Contemporary Euroscepticism in the Party Systems of the European Union Candidate States of Central and Eastern Europe. European Journal of Political Research 43: 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ter Wal, J. 2002. Anti-foreigner Campaigns in the Austrian Freedom Party and Italian Northern League: The Discursive Construction of Identity. In The Haider Phenomenon in Austria, ed. A. Pelinka and R. Wodak, 157–176. London: Transaction.Google Scholar
  60. Thatcher, M. 1993. The Downing Street Years. London: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  61. Trenz, H.J. 2007. Quo Vadis Europe? Quality Newspapers Struggling for European Unity. In The European Union and the Public Sphere: A Communicative Space in the Making? ed. J.E. Fossum and P. Schlesinger, 89–109. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  62. Weaver, M. 2016. Polish Envoy Voices Concerns About Brexit xenophobia After Harlow Killing. The Guardian, August 31.Google Scholar
  63. Weymouth, A., and P. Anderson. 1999. Insulting the Public? The British Press and the European Union. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  64. Wodak, R. 2001. The Discourse-Historical Approach. In Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, ed. R. Wodak and M. Meyer, 63–94. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wodak, R. 2006. The Sage Handbook of Nations and Nationalism, ed. G. Delanty and K. Kumar, 104–117. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wodak, R. 2008. Introduction: Discourse Studies—Important Concepts and Terms. In Qualitative Discourse Analysis, ed. R. Wodak, and M. Krzyżanowski, 1–29. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  67. Wodak, R., and M. Reisigl. 2001. Discourse and Discrimination. Rhetorics of Racism and Antisemitism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Articles that Formed Part of the Critical Discourse Analysis

  1. Arnese, M. (2002) Nel giorno dell'euro trionfa ancora la lira. Il Giornale, 2 January, p. 3.Google Scholar
  2. Ashworth-Hayes, S. 2016. We won’t be in a single market without free movement. InFacts, April 6.Google Scholar
  3. Baldwin, T., M. Fletcher, and P. Webster. 2002. Europe Takes the Plunge. The Times, January 1, p. 1.Google Scholar
  4. Bainbridge, T. 2000. The Penguin Companion to European Union. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, U. 2003. Toward a New Critical Theory with a Cosmopolitan Intent. Constellations 10 (4): 453–468.Google Scholar
  6. Bremner, C., F. Elliott, and C. Coates. 2014. UKIP Triumphant as Europe lurches to the Right. The Times, May 26.Google Scholar
  7. Caprettini, A. 2007. Tutta la stampa definisce l’Italia ‘ridicola.’ Il Giornale, October 20.Google Scholar
  8. Carassava, A., and B. Waterfield. 2015. Tsipras Gives Greeks a Vote on EU Deal. The Times, June 27.Google Scholar
  9. Chalaby, J. 1996. Journalism as an Anglo-American Invention: A Comparison of the Development of French and Anglo-American Journalism, 1830s–1920s. European Journal of Communication 11 (3): 303–326.Google Scholar
  10. Charter, D., F. Elliott, and P. Webster. 2007. Gordon Brown Says No to Referendum and Any More Integration for Ten Years. The Times, October 20.Google Scholar
  11. Charter, D., and D. Sharrock. 2008. Irish Voters Sign Death Warrant for EU Treaty. The Times, June 14, p. 1.Google Scholar
  12. Comana, M. 2002. Ma il mercato non e unico. Il Giornale, January 2, p. 1.Google Scholar
  13. Deacon, D. 2016. Media Coverage of the EU Referendum. Report 5. Loughborough: Loughborough University.Google Scholar
  14. De Montis, L. 2014. Quando Grillo diceva: ‘Se perdo, vado a casa.’ E ora Beppe che farà? Il Giornale, May 26.Google Scholar
  15. Di Marzo, L. 2015. La Grecia approva il referendum. Ma I sondaggi sono contro Tsipras. Il Giornale, June 28.Google Scholar
  16. Dixon, H and L. Lythgoe. 2016. Six more Brexit Myths from the Eurosceptic Press. The Guardian, June 2.Google Scholar
  17. Dixon, H and L. Lythgoe. 2016. Press’ Hateful 8 Stories from Brexit debate. InFacts, May 19.Google Scholar
  18. Elliot, F., and S. Coates. 2016. Brexit Earthquake. Prime Minister Announces Resignation? Vote to Leave Threatens Break-Up of UK: Leadership Battles Ahead on Both Sides. The Times, June 25.Google Scholar
  19. Feltri, V. 2011. Monti non conta niente. Il Giornale, December 11, p. 1.Google Scholar
  20. Francese, I. 2016. Come rosica Saviano: ‘Brexit come nazismo’ Il Giornale, June 24.Google Scholar
  21. Gifford, C. 2014. The Making of Eurosceptic Britain. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Greenslade, R. 2016. Daily Mail publishes correction to misleading EU migrants’ story. The Guardian, May 23.Google Scholar
  23. Ipos-Mori 2014. Perceptions are not reality: Things the world gets wrong [Online]. Available at https://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/researcharchive/3466/Perceptions-are-not-reality-Things-the-world-gets-wrong.aspx.
  24. Judt, T. 2005. Postwar. A history of Europe since 1945. London: Pimlico.Google Scholar
  25. Macioce, V. 2008. Doppio Choc. L’Europa Muore, gli Europei quasi. Il Giorno dei Sogni Finitti. Il Giornale, June 14, p. 1.Google Scholar
  26. Monnet’s Money. 2002. Editorial. The Times, January 1.Google Scholar
  27. Owen, R. 2002. My Passion for Europe. The Times, January 14.Google Scholar
  28. Phillips, M. 2014. Ukip isn’t a Protest. It’s a Counter-Revolution; Voters’ Views on the EU Have Been Treated with Disdain—And Now the Main Parties are in a Fix, May 26, p. 26.Google Scholar
  29. Rame, S. 2011. Il ‘no’ della Gran Bretagna fa saltare l’accordo a 27: nasce la Ue a due velocità. Il Giornale, December 9.Google Scholar
  30. Rame, S. 2016. Il Regno Unito vota per la Brexit: è fuori dall’Unione europea. Il Giornale, June 24.Google Scholar
  31. Riddell, P. 2007. This is a Necessary Battle—And One that He Can Win, October 20.Google Scholar
  32. Romano, L. 2014. Europee, Renzi asfalta Grillo. Il Giornale, May 26.Google Scholar
  33. Sarra, C. 2013. Gran Bretagna fuori dall’Ue? Cameron annuncia referendum: ‘Dentro o fuori’ Il Giornale, January 23.Google Scholar
  34. Savage, M., and R. Watson. 2013. Tories Sailing on Clear Blue Water with In-Out Referendum Pledge. The Times, January 24.Google Scholar
  35. Scafuri, R. 2004. Bertinotti: no alla Costituzione europea. Il Giornale, October 26.Google Scholar
  36. Scarano, A. 2015. Tsipras si rivolge ai greci e indice un referendum: ‘La Troika vuole umiliarci’, June 27.Google Scholar
  37. The Sun. 2016. Look Into His Eyes: Beleave in Britain, June 22.Google Scholar
  38. The Times. 2015. The EU is Doomed, Whether We Stay or Go; Cameron is Likely to Get his Deal and Britain is Probably Better Off (Just) Sticking with Bossy, Broken-Backed Brussels, June 27.Google Scholar
  39. The Times 2015. The EU is Doomed, Whether We Stay or Go; Cameron is Likely to Get His Deal and Britain is Probably Better off (Just) Sticking with Bossy, Broken-Backed Brussels, June 27, Editorial.Google Scholar
  40. The Times. 2016. The Best Outcome of Next Week’s Referendum would be a New Alliance of Sovereign EU Nations Dedicated to Free Trade and Reform, Led by Britain, June 18.Google Scholar
  41. Watson, R. 2011. Britain Stands Alone with Historic Rejection of EU. The Times, December 10.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of BedfordshireLutonUK

Personalised recommendations