Emotional Associations of Words in L1 and L2 in Bilinguals
This chapter presents a summary of the investigation on the emotional association of words in the first (L1) and the second (L2) language of bilingual speakers. It has been observed that the emotional associations of these words can differ for the L1 and the L2. To measure the emotional value of these words in bilinguals, researchers have used different research approaches such as clinical, introspective, cognitive, autonomic, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging. Through the chapter these approaches are described and analyzed.
KeywordsAge of acquisition Emotional value Valence Sequential bilinguals Simultaneous bilinguals Emotional dissociation Emotion–memory effect Skin conductance response
Our most sincere gratitude to Deven Christopher for her editorial support and valuable suggestions.
- Altarriba, J., & Basnight-Brown, D. M. (2010). The representation of emotion vs. emotion-laden words in English and Spanish in the affective Simon task. International Journal of Bilingualism. doi: 10.1177/1367006910379261
- Amati-Mehler, J., Argentieri, S., & Canestri, J. (1993). The Babel of the unconscious: Mother tongue and foreign tongues in the analytic dimension. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
- Ardila, A. (2007). Bilingualism in the contemporary world. In A. Ardila & E. Ramos (Eds.), Speech and language disorders in bilinguals (pp. 1–20). New York: Nova Science.Google Scholar
- Bond, M. H., & Lai, T. (1986). Embarrassment and code-switching into a second language. The Journal of Social Psychology, 126(2), 179–186.Google Scholar
- Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (1999). The International affective digitized sounds (IADS): Stimuli, instruction manual and affective ratings. Gainesville, FL: NIMH Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention.Google Scholar
- De Leersnyder, J., Mesquita, B., & Kim, H. S. (2011). Where do my emotions belong? A study of immigrants’ emotional acculturation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 0146167211399103.Google Scholar
- Dewaele, J. M. (2004b). Blistering barnacles! What language do multilinguals swear in? Estudios de Sociolinguıstica, 5, 83–105.Google Scholar
- Kim, M. (1993). The effects of emotional connotations of English words on event-related potentials (ERPs) in Korean-English bilinguals and English-speaking monolinguals. (Ph.D., University of Georgia). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304058599?accountid=10902. (304058599).
- Real Academia de la Lengua. (2001). Diccionario de la lengua española (22nd ed.). Madrid: Real Academia Española.Google Scholar
- Reber, R., Perrig, W. J., Flammer, A., & Walther, D. (1994). Levels of processing and memory for emotional words. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 53(2), 78–85.Google Scholar
- Velez-Uribe, I., & Rosselli, M. (in press). The auditory and visual interpretation of emotionally loaded words in Spanish/English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition.Google Scholar